Question #1  What are the key pollution prevention methods that can alleviate the pollution risks associated with the incineration of medical waste? Question #2What regulations govern military munitions waste? When can used or fired military munitions be classified as solid waste? Question #3What are the factors involved in selecting a bioremediation strategy at a hazardous waste site? Discuss the two most limiting factors in the use of bioremediation at a site. Question #4Discuss the difference between point and non-point sources of land pollution, and provide examples of each. What is TMDL, and how is it used to protect water resources from land pollution? Question #5What is the TRI and what are its main drawbacks? How do you think those drawbacks could be addressed? Question #6What is the difference between a dump and a sanitary landfill? Describe how landfill gas and leachate can be successfully managed.
Six questions 175 words minimum each, APA Format Two Citations for each question -Environmental
BEM 3601, Waste Management 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VI Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 2. Describe the major categories of waste . 2.1 Dis cuss the management of used or fired military munitions . 2.2 Describe the composition and management issues of space waste . 3. Assess the major regulatory developments surrounding waste management . 3.1 Summarize the regulations that govern medical waste i n the United States . 6. Discuss waste disposal techniques and technologies . 6.1 Describe the pollution prevention methods for the incineration of medical waste . 6.2 Summarize the impacts of agricultural waste on water quality . 6.3 Analyze methods for cont rol ling agricultural runoff . Reading Assignment Chapter 23 : Medical W aste Chapter 24 : Agricultural Waste and Pollution Chapter 25 : Military Solid and Hazardous Wastes — Assessment of Issues at Military Facilities and Base Camps Chapter 26 : Space Waste Unit Lesson Medical Waste We have all seen the red biohazard bins in the doctor’s o ffice. Where does the waste in that bin go from there? Medical waste is defined somewhat differently on a state -by -state basis, but it generally consists of infectious agents, discarded vaccines, blood and blood products, body fluids, pathological waste, needles and syringes, and contaminated waste from animals subjected to pathogens in lab research (Shannon & Woolridge, 2011). Given the potential danger of such waste, proper disposal is essential. In 1988, the EPA instituted the Medical Waste Tracking Ac t. This act defined medical waste, created a tracking system, required management standards, and established record -keeping requirements (Shannon & Woolridge, 2011). There are several ways in which medical waste can be treated. These include Hospital/Medi cal/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI), autoclaves, microwaves, chemical treatments, pyrolysis , and dry heat treatments. Many states require that medical waste be incinerated in an HMIWI. However, due to increasingly stringent regulations, the number of HMIWI decreased from 2300 in 1997 to 57 in 2009 ( U.S. EPA , 2009). UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE Medical Waste, Agricultural Waste, Military Waste, and Space Waste BEM 3601, Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title New treatment technologies are allowing some medical waste to be diverted from landfills. One company, SRCL, runs a sharps management service. In the past, when SRCL collected the sharps b in, the contents, along with the bins themselves, would be incinerated or treated in some other manner. Now, a new process that uses robot arms to handle the bins results in disinfecting the bins , which allows SRCL to use the bins several times. The contai ners are bar coded so that the waste management and disinfection process can be thoroughly documented (Warburton, 2013). Agricultural Waste It is easy to think of agriculture as being more natural and less polluting than manufacturing facilities or chemi cal plants. Modern agriculture, however, involves high inputs of fossil fuels, pesticides, and fresh water. In fact, in the United States, agriculture uses 80% of all freshwater resources ( USDA , Economic Research Service , 2013). The water inputs are contam inated with fertilizer and pesticides. Although fertilizers and pesticides have allowed us to increase our agricultural productivity immensely, they also cause serious environmental issues. Recall that you learned in Unit V that dead zones are formed when excess nutrients cause algal blooms. When the algae die, the dissolved oxygen in the water is depleted during the decomposition process. The excess nutrients come largely from agricultural runoff, which is contaminated with nitrogen and phosphorus fertili zer. Through runoff management, biocapturing of nitrogen and phosphorus, and optimal dosing of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, this agricultural wast e problem can be minimized (Nage ndran, 2011). Pollution from agriculture is a global problem. For exam ple, algal blooms may cost up to $ 155 million in Australia and $1.4 billion in France. The source of these pollutants can be difficult to control because the sources are diffuse (Patel, 2012). In addition to fertilizer pollution, pesticides that are applie d to crops can run off and contaminate surface water, or they can percolate into groundwater. The pollution from pesticides in water can affect not only human health but also the health of other organisms. According to a study by Beketov , Kefford, Shafer, and Liess (2013), pesticides caused losses in stream invertebrates of up to 42% of the recorded species in the study. In addition to pollution from pesticides and fertilizers, agriculture also contributes to global warming through fossil fuel emissions fr om machinery in developed countries. In undeveloped countries, however, agriculture’s contribution to global warming comes from activities such as biomass burning. Potential solutions for agricultural greenhouse gas emissions include effective land and cro p management, ecological forestry, and better water management practices (Nagendran, 2011). Military Solid and Hazardous Waste Just as municipalities have to make decisions about their solid waste management activities, military bases must decide how to handle their waste streams. Military bases produce solid waste and hazardous waste streams. However, with several different types of facilities, the military has some unique waste management challenges. For example, the housing areas of a military base wi ll produce much the same solid waste as a typical community. Office areas on the base will produce waste that is similar to a civilian commercial area. However, these two waste streams can vary significantly in volume if the base serves as a training facil ity. For training facilities, t here is an influx of people, and then a decrease when personnel are deployed. Hazardous waste streams can come from sources that are similar to municipal sources, such as motor pools, industrial shops, paint shops, photograp hy facilities, hospitals, clinics, and laboratories ( Medina & Waisner, 2011 ). However, one military waste stream that is different from civilian waste streams is that of training ranges. The Military Munitions Rule (MMR) regulates munitions waste. Accordin g to Latham (2000), in the abstract to his article “The Military Munitions Rule and Environmental Regulation of Munitions,” Military training sites across the nation are littered with spent munitions and unexploded ordnance, the result of decades of weapo ns development and training exercises. The problem is that these military munitions contain materials and chemicals which are potentially hazardous to the environment, and their destruction and cleanup post special environmental and safety concerns. BEM 3601, Waste Management 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Event ually, munitions age and no longer meet specifications. The safest way to dispose of such munitions is to destroy them, which is often done through open burning/ open detonation (Medina & W eisner, 2011). Space Waste Space Waste is something that most of u s don’t think about on a regular basis. Although it seems that we should perhaps concentrate on dealing with the waste we must dispose of on the Earth, the more we send spacecraft and satellites into orbit around the Earth , the more important it becomes th at we manage this waste stream properly. It is very expensive to launch a satellite or spacecraft, only to have it smashed to pieces when it collides with debris orbiting the planet. The U.S. Strategic Command’s Space Surveillance Network estimates that t here are 21,000 artificial objects within 40,000 km of the Earth’s surface, half a million objects between 1 and 10 cm, and millions of objects smaller than 1cm (Stansbery, 2011). Most of these objects are space debris. Despite these large numbers, the pr obability of a satellite or spacecraft launched from Earth colliding with one of these objects is currently low. However, a NASA study indicated that an average of 18.2 collisions would be expected in the next 200 years (Stansbery, 2011). Each time one of these collisions occurs, it will increase the debris field, further increasing the chances of more collisions. For example, a Russian satellite collided with a U.S. commercial satellite in 1996. In that collision, more than 2,000 pieces of debris were adde d to the space debris field ( NASA , 2013). Removing space debris is the only way to reduce the number of collisions that will occur, but it is not currently economically feasible to do so. Therefore, r ight now, no such action is being taken. However, futur e technological advances will hopefully make it possible for the removal of debris to be come an economically feasible endeavor. In the meantime, the Inter -Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee created space debris mitigation guidelines, which were acc epted by the United Nations in 2007. References Beketov, M. A., Kefford, B. J., Schafer, R. B, & Liess, M. (2013). Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ,110 (27), 11039 -11043 . Latham, J. E. (2000). The Military Munitions Rule and environmental regulation of munitions. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review , 27 (3), 467 -518 . Medina, V. F., & Waisner, S. A. (2011). Wastes — assessment of issues at military facilities and base camps. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 358 -37 6). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Nagendran, R. (2011). Agricultural waste and pollution. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Ed s.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 341 -391 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . NASA. (2013). Space debris and human spacecraft. Retrieved from Patel, T. (2012 , March 12 ). W ater pollution from farming is worsening, costing billions. BloombergBusiness . Retrieved from -03 -12/water -pollution -from -farming -is- worsening -costing -billions.html Shannon, A. L., & W oolridge, A. (2011). Medical wast e. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 377 -339 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Stansbery, G. (2011). Space waste. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 265 -279 ). Burli ngton, MA: Academic Press . BEM 3601, Waste Management 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2013).Irrigation & water use. Retrieved from -practices -management/irrigation -water – use.aspx#.VCLGF0tN1Zg U.S. Environmental Protect ion Agency. (2009). Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guideline for Existing Sources, Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (40 CFR 60). Warburton, N. (2013). Robot world. Local Authority Waste & Recycling, 22 (1), 10 -11.
Six questions 175 words minimum each, APA Format Two Citations for each question -Environmental
BEM 3601, Waste Management 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Summarize the history of waste management including impacts from early hum an civilization to current day . 1.1 Analyze the causes and effects of a past hazardous waste incident . 6. Discuss waste disposal techniques and technologies . 6.1 Describe in situ and ex situ treatment methods for abandoned hazardous waste sites . 6.2 Summa rize the impacts of temperature on waste treatment and environmental systems . 6.3 Discuss the control of point and non -point sources of land pollution . 6.4 Describe the factors that drive the selection of bioremediation strategies for the treatment of haza rdous waste. 7. Summarize requirements for hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal . 7.1 Discuss the main components of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) . Reading Assignment Chapter 27 : Hazardous W aste s Chapter 28 : Thermal Pollution Chapter 29 : Land Pollution Unit Lesson Hazardous Waste Between 1942 and 1953, Hooker Chemical dumped 21,800 tons of industrial hazardous waste in an abandoned canal in New York. Although it was capped, the waste eventually leached into the groundwater, basements, and to the surface. The waste caused serious health problems for the residents, and just about anyone recognizes the name of the area in question : Love Canal (Thompson, 2013). The Love Canal incident is an infamous example of the consequences of improper disposal of hazardous waste. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the disposal of solid and hazardous waste in the United States. Section 1004(5) of RCRA de scribes a hazardous waste as “a solid waste that may pose a substantial present or potential threat to human health and the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or otherwise managed ” (Vallero , 2011 a). To fall under RCRA, a waste must f irst be classified as a solid waste. The waste can then be further classified as a listed waste, a characteristic waste, a univ ersal waste, or a mixed waste. Hazardous waste generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, or disposal facilities are all regulated under RCRA . RCRA divides waste into two types. Non -hazardous waste is covered under Subtitle D, and hazardous waste is covered under Subtitle C. UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Hazardous Waste, Thermal Pollution, and Land Pollution BEM 3601, Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Vallero (2011 a) lists three main aspe cts of managing hazardous waste:  First, managers should reduce the amount of hazardous waste being produced. This aspect of waste management is, of course, a recurring theme with all types of waste we have discussed throughout the course. Ideally, the process that is producing the waste should be altered as much as p ossible to minimize the amount of hazardous waste that results.  Second, the hazardous waste that is produced should be treated to reduce its toxicity as much as possible.  Last, engineering controls should be applied to minimize exposure to the waste. Trea tment technologies for hazardous waste include physical treatment, chemical treatment, and biodegradation. A hazardous waste can be physically treated by several means. As you read in Chapter 16, the waste can be incinerated to reduce the volume of waste, reduce its toxicity (in some cases), and reduce the chances of the waste migrating offsite. Another physical treatment process is solidification and stabilization. This process produces a solid block of treated waste. This method maintains the waste in a form that is the least soluble and least toxic form of the waste. Disposal is another physical form of treatment. Hazardous waste can be disposed of in underground injection wells, in surface impoundments, in landfills, at land treatment facilities, or in waste piles. Lastly, hazardous waste can also be sent to com prehensive treatment facilities that treat many forms of hazardous waste (Vallero, 2011 a). Chemical treatment methods for hazardous waste consist of four m ain types of chemical reactions:  Synt hesis reactions occur when two or more substances react to form a single substance . In the case of hazardous waste treatment, this substance is a less toxic one.  Decomposition reactions are reactions in which one substance is broken down into two or more n ew substances.  In single replacement reactions, one reactant replaces another react ant.  In a double -replacement reaction, molecules exchange their cations and anions. Biodegradation of hazardous waste involve s the use of microbes to break waste down into water, carbon dioxide, and other simple inorganic and organic compounds. In addition to generation, treatment, and disposal, another primary issue in volving hazardous waste is the management and cleanup of abandoned hazardous waste sites. Before RCRA, haz ardous waste was not managed properly, and as a result, there have been over 20,000 abandoned hazardous waste sites identified in the United States as requiring immediate action (Vallero, 2011 a). These sites are regulated under the Comprehensive Environmen tal Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This law is best known as Superfund. The waste at these sites can be treated by in situ (in place) or ex situ (off -site) methods. Typical actions for treating contaminated soil include excavat ing the soil and transporting it to incinerators or other treatment facilities. Groundwater is often treated through a pump -and -treat system, whereby contaminated water is pumped through recovery wells into a treatment system on the surface. Air strippers, filtering through granular activated carbon drums, and air sparging are three methods commonly used to treat the groundwater that is pumped from the recovery wells. In situ treatment methods include bioremediation and phytoremediation (Vallero, 2011 a). BEM 3601, Waste Management 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Thermal Pollution Heat might not be something you would automatically think of when listing pollutants. However, when too much heat is added to an environmental system, it can adversely affect the organisms living in that system. Thermal pollution can be direct, such as a power plant releasing heated water into a stream. It can also be indirect, through various changes in the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of a system (Vallero, 2011 b). One example of such indirect pollution is the thermochem ical formation of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Thermal reactions emit greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide being the main gas released. An equilibrium among carbonates, bicarbonates, organic compounds, carbonic acid , and carbon dioxide is invo lved in the regulation of the pH of precipitation. As the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, the interactions between the forms of carbon in equilibrium in the atmosphere cause a proportional decrease in the pH of precipitation. For example, models show that a 50 -part -per -million increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere would produce a decrease in precipitation pH to 5.5. The pH of uncontaminated pH is 5.6. Although this may not seem like much at first glance, ke ep in mind that the pH scale is loga rithmic. This means that a one -unit decrease in the pH is a tenfold decrease in acidity. Thermal process often generate s sulfur and nitrogen compounds, as well. Both sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water in the atmosphere to form acids. Temperature affect s not only environmental system s but also waste treatment. As you learned in Chapter 16, the byproducts of thermal treatment processes can sometimes be more toxic than those of the waste being treated. The temp erature at which wastes are incinerated can determine whether toxic byproducts are produced during the incineration process. Some of the most toxic byproducts of thermal processes are the products of incomplete combustion, such as chlorinated dioxins . Shib amoto, Yasuhara, and Katami, (2007) found that dioxin formation in incin erators occurred at temperatures above 450 degrees and decreased significantly above 850 degrees. However, the reactions in incinerators are very complex, and not all of the factors involved in dioxin formation are understood well enough to control the formation of this dangerous byproduct of thermal treatment of waste. Land Pollution For the purposes of this Unit, land pollution is not a waste stream itself, but the ways in which lan d is polluted through human activity can be . Obviously, we can pollute the land by dumping waste onto it, but land can be damaged when development of land is not properly managed. Erosion and habitat destruction can occur when land is developed without con sideration for the ecosystem surrounding it. Land pollution often ends up causing or becoming water pollution, as well. We discussed the formation of dead zones in Chapter 19. Sediment loading from erosion causes these dead zones . Much of the runoff that causes dead zones results from what would usually be classified as non -point sources of pollution. A non – point source is one that does not have a definitive discharge location. A point source does originate from a definitive location. One way in which the Clean Water Act regulates these sources of pollution is through restricting the total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants that are released into water bodies that have been classified as impaired (Vallero & Vallero, 2011). In some cases, the damage to the land has already been done. As discussed in Chapter 27, Superfund regulates the cleanup of abandoned hazardous waste sites. The EPA ’s Land Revitalization Program seeks to restore contaminated sites. If the efforts are successful, and the land can be r ehabilitated to the extent that it can be used in some beneficial way, it is known as a brownfi eld. BEM 3601, Waste Management 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title References Shibamoto, T., Yasuhara, A., Katami, T. (2007). Dioxin formation from waste incineration. Rev iews of Environ mental Contam ination Toxicol ogy , 190 , 1-41. Retrieved from Thompson, C. (2013 , November 2 ). Love Canal toxic waste disaster is repeating, 35 years later, lawsuits by new residents claim. National Post. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.go v/pubmed/17432330 Vallero, D. A. (2011 a). Hazardous wastes. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 393 -42 3). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Vallero, D. A. (2011 b). Thermal pollution. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Val lero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 425 -443 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Vallero, D. J., & Vallero, D. A. (2011). Land pollution. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 445 -466 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press .
Six questions 175 words minimum each, APA Format Two Citations for each question -Environmental
BEM 3601, Waste Management 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Summarize the history of waste management, including impacts from early human civilization to current day . 1.1 Discuss the impacts of legacy pollution and the co ncept of responsible care . 3. Assess the major regulatory developments surrounding waste management . 3.1 Discuss the regulations governing a waste stream covered in the course . 3.2 Describe the Toxic Release Inventory , including its primary drawbacks . 6. Discuss waste disposal techniques and technologies . 6.1 Describe a waste stream covered in the course . 6.2 Discuss the successful management of landfill gas and leachate . Reading Assignment Chapter 30: Landfills – Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow Chapter 31 : Pollution Management and Responsible Care Chapter 32 : Risk Assessment, Management, and Acco untability Unit Lesson Landfills As you learned in Unit I, waste dumps have been with us since the beginning of humankind. Our population continues to increase, and our municipal waste increases along with it . Where do we put all of this waste? As recently as 50 years ago, we were still disposing of our waste in open dumps in the United States (Blight, 2011). In an open dump, waste is just thrown into an open pit. As a comparison, a sanitary landfill has a li ner to prevent leachate from leaving the landfill untreated, a gas collection system to collect methane gas generated from the decomposing trash, and a cap. There are several environmental hazards associated with landfills , including landfill gas, leachat e, and stability/safety issues. Landfill gas is produced as bacteria decompose the waste in the landfill. Carbon dioxide ( CO 2) is released, filling the pore space in the landfill. As the CO s builds up, anaerobic conditions prevail, and anaerobic bacteria p roduce methane ( CH 4) as they decompose the waste. Methane gas is flammable and explosive at a high enough concentration. Modern sanitary landfills are designed to collect landfill gas (which also consists of CO 2 and nitrogen). The gas can then be used to generate electricity. In addition to producing gas, landfills also produce leachate. As with landfill gas, modern sanitary landfills are designed to collect this leachate. Generally, as a landfill cell gets older, the pollution potential of the landfill le achate decreases. UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE Hazardous Waste, Thermal Pollution, and Land Pollution BEM 3601, Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Studies have shown that although uncollected leachate does not progress far from its source at the landfill, it can persist for upwards of 30 years. Another hazard of landfills is the failure of the landfill itself. Entire sections of du mps and landfills can collapse, sending waste and its associated pollutants onto land, homes, and waterways. Between 1977 and 1997, there were seven major failures of dumps, including on e in the United States. In 2000, a slide occurred at a dump in the Phi lip pines , and b etween 278 and 628 people died (278 confirmed dead, between 80 -350 missing) (Blight, 2011). Despite advances in landfill technology in developed nations, much of the developing world still disposes of its waste in unlined, unregulated dumps . In the developed world, however, new technologies continue to make landfills safer and cause fewer pollution issues. For example, bio -reactor landfills recirculate leachate to speed decomposition, and municipal solid waste is being used as fuel to genera te electricity instead of being dumped in a landfill (Blight, 2011). Pollution Management and Responsible Care Society’s need for goods, some necessary for survival and some not really needed at all, creates a constant stream of waste and pollution. Some of this pollution was produced before the enactment of environmental legislation and is referred to as legacy pollution. We also continue to produce pollution on a daily basis. This type of pollution is referred to as ongoing pollution (Cheremisinoff, 201 1). How should companies deal with both legacy and ongoing pollution? Although some companies might exercise care when it comes to the amount and types of pollution they produce in the absence of fin es and penalties, history can show that such care is fre quently not taken — even with regulatory measures in place. Cheremisoff (2011) cites several examples of incidents in which corporate profits were put before safety and responsibility. In 2008, because the Tennessee Valley Authority did not inspect the walls of its coal ash dredge cells, 5.4 million cubic yards of fly ash and bottom ash was released into local waterways. Unfortunately, it is not difficult to find many other examples of such neglect. An infamous example of an industrial disaster is the Bhopal disaster of 1984. The disaster was revisited in the media recently due to the death on October 31, 2014 of Warren Anderson, who was the CEO of Union Carbide in 19 84 when the incident occurred . Union Carbide operated a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India. A release of methyl i socyanate gas killed between 2, 259 and 15,000 people. However, the deaths were only the tip of the iceberg. Birth defects and injuries affected another 500,000 people. After the disaster, Warren Anderson traveled to India and was briefly arrested and subsequently left India while he was on bail. Although the Indian government attempted to have him extradited to face “culpable -homicide” charges, they were not successful. Union Carbide claimed that a disgruntled employee caused the accident, but activists maintain that it was negligence on the part of the company. Many in India were appalled at the $470 million settlement that Union Carbide made with the Indian government (Anderson, 2014). In this situation, who did not exercise responsible c are? Who should be held accountable? The Bhopal disaster brought attention to the fact that irresponsible action on the part of company officials could have catastrophic consequences. After another chemical release at a West Virginia plant soon thereafter , the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act was passed in 1986. Section 313 of EPCRA required that the EPA and the states report releases and transfers of certa in toxic chemicals and make the reports publicly available on the Toxics Release In ventory (TRI). The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 added to the date that has to be reported under the TRI (Cheremisoff, 2011). The failure of companies to be good environmental stewards has caused severe and sometimes irreversible damage to the environm ent and human health. Encouraging good environmental practices and enforcing regulations can prevent many of the accidents discussed in Chapter 31. Risk Assessment, Management, and Accountability There are four main steps to risk assessment : hazard ident ification, dose -response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. For hazard identification, a risk assessor determines what types of adverse effects might be cause d by exposure to an agent. In the context of waste management, we can thi nk of this agent as some type of waste product. BEM 3601, Waste Management 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The dose -response assessment determines how much of the waste will produce a negative health effect. In exposure assessment, the risk assessor examines how people might come in contact with the waste and in what quantities. Finally, risk characterization takes the information from the hazard identification, the dose – response assessment, and the exposure assessment to create an overall picture of the amount of risk associated with a particular waste. Once thi s overall picture of risk is determined, a waste manager must make decisions based on this knowledge. However, this can be complicated because there are gaps in the information available at every step in the risk assessment itself. Therefore, the overall c haracterization of the risk can contain significant uncertainties. When establishing the reference dose (RfD), which is the safe dose of a substance, these uncertainties have to be taken into account. Once the risk and its associated uncertainties are cal culated, the risk characterization can be used to solve environmental problems in two general ways: direct risk assessments and risk -based cleanup standards. In direct risk assessments, risk assessors calculate individual risk, which is the probability of an individual developing an adverse effect as a result of exposure to the substance in question. The assessor can also calculate the population risk, which is the excess number of cancers (above the background level) that would occur yearly in a populatio n due to exposure to the substance (Vallero, 2011). Despite the uncertainties involved, risk assessment enables risk assessors and waste managers to minimize the dangers of hazardous wastes to the general public. Communicating the risks to the public is an important step in the risk assessment process. Just because exposure to a substance is associated with an adverse effect does not necessarily mean that there is causality. Hill’s C riteria for Causality outline s criteria that should be met to determine c ause and effect. The nine criteria includ e the strength of the association, the consistency of the association, the timing of the exposure and effect, and experimental evidence. Each criterion is explained in detail in the text in Table 32.8 (Chapter 32) . Since causality is an often -misunderstood aspect of risk, an understanding of Hill’s criteria is helpful in effectively communicating risk to the general public. References Anderson, C. (2014 , November 2 ). Warren M. Anderson, who le d Union Carbide durin g 1984 Bhopal disaster, dies at 92. The Washington Post . Retrieved from -m- anderson -who -led -union -carbide -during -1984 -bhopal -disaster -dies -at-92/2014/11/02/31aa9c9e -61d8 – 11e4 -8b9e -2ccdac31a031_story.html Blight, G . (2011). Landfills – Yesterday, today a nd tomorrow. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 469 -48 5). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Cheremisinoff, N. P. (2011). Pollution management and responsible care. In T. M . Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 487 -502 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Vallero, D. A. (2011). Risk assessment, management, and accountability. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for mana gement (pp. 503 -540 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press .

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