PowerpointThis course has introduced and assessed many noteworthy figures related to the continuing evolution of the United States and its place within the world during the last 170 years. For this assignment, you will develop a PowerPoint presentation based on your Unit V Outline. The presentation should be appropriate for an audience; in other words, it needs to be thoughtfully organized, visually attractive, and clear in the message you are trying to convey.In the Unit V Outline, you chose an influential public figure working in America from the mid-19th century to the present. Your selection did not have to be an American citizen, but you were not to choose a U.S. president.This presentation is not meant to be a biography. You should focus on communicating the figure’s relevance in today’s modern era and highlight how society remembers him or her now.The presentation must be a minimum of 10 slides and should address the concepts listed below.ContentIntroduce how your figure impacted a civil rights movement (including, but not limited to, creed, race, age, status, or gender). Note: His or her impact may not necessarily be a positive one.Identify how this figure is viewed on the national and/or world stage.Discuss how this figure may have influenced challenges and/or opportunities for the United States as a global power (i.e., their international impact). Provide a perspective on if this figure’s impact would have been seen as progressive.OrganizationThe organization of the presentation should be based on the Unit V Outline. Make sure that you utilize any feedback given on your outline.Ideas should be grouped together and transition smoothly.Make use of the notes section in each slide in order to communicate your thoughts and ideas. If you would prefer, audio voiceover can be utilized in place of slide notes.Include a title slide (one slide), content slides (eight slides), and a reference slide (one slide).Quality of PresentationCreativity and effort are highly encouraged. PowerPoint provides several options for developing an exciting presentation, including options for both audio and video components; however, customizing the method of delivery for the presentation is up to you.Use images, graphics, smart art, and backgrounds that enhance your presentation and make it look professional, clean, and visually attractive.Click here to view a presentation on PowerPoint best practices. A transcript for this resource can be found within the “Notes” tab to the right of the presentation.Citations and FormattingUse a minimum of two sources that can be found in the CSU Online Library.The American History and Life database is a good place to start, but other databases, such as Academic Search Complete, Films on Demand, and Ebook Central, may be used as well.Click here to view a tutorial on how to search the American History and Life database. Note: This tutorial uses a U.S. president as an example, but remember that a U.S. president cannot be used for this assignment.Additional sources are allowed, but they must be scholarly/academic in nature and come from reputable sources. Wikipedia or other similar online encyclopedias are not reputable sources. Click here to view a resource on evaluating websites to use in your research.All sources used must be properly cited according to APA format. All in-text citations must have matching references listed on the references slide.OUTLINE INCLUDED
Powerpoint This course has introduced and assessed many noteworthy figures related to the continuing evolution of the United States and its place within the world during the last 170 years. For this a
Running head: UNIT V OUTLINE, DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. Unit V Outline, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was most famous for his “I Have a Dream” speech, which he delivered at the Washington Memorial on August 8, 1963. Dr. King’s dream was that all African Americans would have equal rights. Dr. King faced many trials and tribulations trying to achieve his dream. Violence, hatred, and racism eventually led to his assassination on April 4, 1968, at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. What was Dr. King’s dream? For African Americans to have equal rights. To stop racial violence. The Civil Rights Movement Non-violent protest I have a dream speech He helped to establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Voting Rights Act Signed on August 6th, 1965 IV. A Fallen Hero King was assassinated on April 4, 1968 Massive protest erupted UNIT V OUTLINE Lasting effects to a legacy Civil Rights Reform Fighting against segregation and discrimination Montgomery bus boycott UNIT V OUTLINE References Card, M. M. (2018). Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” Speech: An Exploration and analysis of Personal, Cultural, and Collective Complexes in the Foundation of the Dream and the Life of Dr. King. Journal of Heart Centered Therapies, 21(2). 3+. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.libraryresources.columbiasouthrn.edu/apps/doc/A569457158/AONE? History Magazine. (Dec. 2018/Jan. 2019) To THE PROMISED LAND. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/ehost/detail?vid=10&sid=f69167Ib-8457-4278-b597- Tasneem, Siddiqui, (2019). Dream and Legacy: Dr. Martin Luther King in the Post-Civil Rights Era ed. By Michael L. Clemons, Donathan L. Brown, and William H. L. Dorsey (review). Retrieved from: http://web.b.ebscohost.com.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=7&sid=f68167b-8457-4278-b597-
Powerpoint This course has introduced and assessed many noteworthy figures related to the continuing evolution of the United States and its place within the world during the last 170 years. For this a
HY 1120, American History II 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 4. Summarize the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on America’s societal infrastructure. 5. Contrast varied perspectives concerning America’s presence in the world. 6. Explain the United States’ role as a superpower during and after the world wars. 7. Describe the modern challenges and opportunities concerning the United States around the globe. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 4 Unit Lesson Reading s: U.S. His tory Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation 5 Unit Lesson Reading s: U.S. History Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation 6 Unit Lesson Reading s: U.S. History Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation 7 Unit Lesson Reading s: U.S. History Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation Reading Assignment Throughout this course, you will be provided with sections of content from the online resource U.S. History . You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of the material listed below as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. Click on the link below to access your material. Click here to access this unit’s reading s from U.S. History . The chapter/section titles are also provided below. Chapter 29 (Sections 29.1 –29.4) : Contesting Futures: America in the 1960s Section 30.1 : Identity Politics in a Fractured Society Section 30.2 : Coming Apart, Coming Together Section 30.3 : Vietnam: The Downward Spiral Unit Lesson Cultural Renaissance The 1960s and 1970s were a renewed cultural renaissance of sorts for the United States. Almost in spite of the ongoing communist threat, post -Korea attitudes again provided a chance for reflection with the rest of the world. This would be the stage for some of the most dynamic speakers and leaders in recent memory. Ana lyzing the complex question of racial equality and debates promoting violent and nonviolent action would resonate throughout the nation’s urban and rural locations. These would bring with them wave after wave of hostile criticism and reaction from conserva tive, and often wh ite, neighbors and peers. UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Kennedy and Vietnam HY 1120, American History II 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title In this same spirit, a renewed women’s reform would also emerge. Building on the successes of Seneca Falls, the 1848 conference where equality leaders drafted the Declaration of Sentiments , as well as the suffrage fight, a new stage with new leaders would introduce an even more controversial attempt at total equality: the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Away from home, not everything wo uld remain peaceful, as the communist threat would once again imperil the delicate line between Communist and Democratic views. Again, this divide would end in military action. Vietnam, however, would not be as neatly resolved as Korea had been or like it had previously concluded in the Philippines. Despite its superpower status, the United States would show exactly how fragile its balance of social and political support was while interfering in another civil war across the Pacific. With the help of contin ued technological innovation, this period of cultural development was truly unlike any before it. Music, art, and opinion were once again highlighted, but the mass availability of print at a low cost of records, and growing obsession with television helped spread these images and opinions across the W estern world at unparalleled speed and volume. This period will forever be remembered for its music, counterculture, and protest. Consider the following questions when reading: How much more aware were the dra ft-age Americans than their older brothers, fathers, and grandfathers when military service called? How was this response captured for future generations? Can today’s generation relate to these same responses? Using the exercises and skills taught in previ ous lessons, you should be able to use the bounty of historical records to engross yourself in the time period like never before. A Catholic President In November 1960, perhaps the first reform of the decade would be somewhat less expected than those that were to come. The United States, since its founding as British colonies, had always been overwhelmingly Protestant. It had small, often ridiculed or excluded pockets of Catholics. These groups of Catholics were typically immigrants who pos ed little economic or political influence. Since the nation’s founding, one of the fears of the American -born people who sought to become U.S. citizens was the tyrannical rule of a monarch from half a world away. The forefathers had become legends for the ir success against England’s King George III. However, there was another perceived threat for many from someone who maintained a constant influence throughout the world: the pope. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK), with his running mate Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ ), rode the Democratic Party ticket to a win over the Republican candidate and current (at the time) Vice President Richard Milhous Nixon. This was the first time that visage became a more significant factor than either print or oratory ability in the sele ction of a president, thanks to p residential debates that were broadcasted live on television. JFK was charismatic, well bred, came from an exclusive family with strong political ties, and was a war hero, famously captaining PT -109 in numerous campaigns a gainst the Japanese Navy; however, he was also Catholic. For those who did not support his politics or who held unwavering conservative values, JFK was ostracized and even attacked for this faith. Smartly pairing with the more conservative and somewhat con troversial Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas, JFK ensured that he was a constant topic of interest in U.S. politics. Betty Ford in support of the ERA (White House Photographic Office, 2010) HY 1120, American History II 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title He used his Catholic roots to help relate to a wide range of Americans, many of whom came from the lower classes and from groups seeking reform . His platform challenged Americans to look past what was comfortable and embrace those challenges that threatened peace during this Cold W ar era. “My fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country” (Kenned y, 1961 , para. 25 ). His ability to remain cool and collected, especially in comparison to his opponent , Nixon, also made him attractive to many outlying populations that previously may not have closely connected to either party. JFK secured the 1960 electi on with Johnson’s help by stealing Texas and Illinois from the Republicans. He carried this political momentum to his first acts as chief executive. JFK ’s success was perhaps one of the more noted, but it was only the first such success for the reform – min ded and now largely Democratic population. During his interrupted term in office, his advocacy would be instrumental to the passing of major changes to benefit reform, education, and science programs in the United States. Included in these changes were his rapid escalation of the U.S. space program and planning of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made public discrimination illegal. This rights bill, signed by Johnson in the wake of JFK ’s assassination on November 22, 1963, was one of Kennedy’s greatest l egacies and came as a shock to many of Johnson’s conservative democrat supporters. Johnson , picked to balance the Democratic ticket, was drastically different in attitude, presence, and background from JFK . It was Johnson’s conservative values that had ensured the office, but Johnson also understood the America for which JFK fought. In his own style, which was often closely guarded and aggressive, Johnson quickly took up his predecessor’s mantle upon ascending to the presidency following JFK’s assassinat ion. He followed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the Economic Opportunity Act and the Community Action Program (CAP), both of which were programs that promised funds, programs, and positions to benefit the lower economic classes. They were intended to bu ild a stronger foundation and aid the disadvantaged. Johnson would be reelected in 1964. Under his proposed Great Society plan, with the overwhelming support of Chief Justice Earl Warren and the Supreme Court, he would continue this “W ar on Poverty” by st arting new programs (e.g., Medicare , Medicaid ) and adopting legislation including the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, and the National Housing Act. One thing that is very important to note is that all of these progra ms were geared toward ensuring a future for American citizens, no matter their class, color, age, or gender. Cuban Cris is As successful as these stateside programs were, the Cold W ar continued to cast a negative shadow on the United States, starting with a carryover issue from the previous Eisenhower Administration. The Bay of Pigs, an inlet on Cuba’s southwestern coast, would gain worldwide recognition early in 1961 when JFK ordered its invasion. JFK expected to gather local anti -Castro support, the fail ure of which proved to be more than just an embarrassment as it set the stage for the hostile relationship that persists today among these geographical neighbors. Bay of Pigs (Zleitzen, n.d.) HY 1120, American History II 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The growing threat of a small insurgency led by Fidel Castro, who threatened to open the island’s ports to soviet nuclear weapons, reopened old wounds with the U.S.S.R. It also put intense pressure on the United States to abandon its longstanding Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. JFK now had two early losses to Khrushchev, as the Mercury program (1961) was not fast enough to beat the Soviets in launching the first man into space. The next move would be both physical and psychological, as the Sovie ts physically built a wall in Berlin to mark their choice to separate from the West. JFK believed the only way to ensure safety for the citizens of West Berlin was to keep pressure on the Soviet capital. To do so, American soldiers and ballistics were str ategically located around Europe, most importantly in Turkey, a close ally with a location essential to ensuring a successful detonation. On October 22, 1962, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) satellites secured photos of rapid military construction in Cub a, with bases fit to handle the launch of numerous nuclear missiles. These bases were less than 100 miles off the American coast. This meant that the Cold W ar was at the brink of hostility as the Soviets had found a way to penetrate the U.S. nuclear defens e. The U.S. Capitol and most populated cities were now in range of a nuclear attack. If a missile was fired at the U.S. eastern coast, there was not time to guarantee a successful countermeasure. With the Navy ordered to blockade any suspicious entry into Cuban waters, and the U.S. nuclear weapon arsenal pointed directly at the Soviet Union, the Cuban Missile Crisis was easily the tensest point in this military stalemate. These two superpowers, intent on proving their resolve and strength, waited until th e two sides found a common ground. Cuba would be disarmed only if the United States disarmed Turkey. While neither side “won,” JFK would atone for the Bay of Pigs and emerge a hero, while Khrushchev’s days as leader of the U.S.S.R. were coming to an end. Even with the successful resolution in Cuba, tensions continued to escalate. In 1963, Americans were highly supportive of the South Vietnamese, who, like the South Koreans a decade earlier, were in a tense position , sharing a border with a growing communis t presence to the north. Officially only a trading partner, the United States was a chief arms dealer to the South Asian nation, having already provided more than $1 billion in aid under Eisenhower’s Administration. Unlike Korea, geography was not a sure measure of trust. The Vietcong, a largely Buddhist grassroots resistance movement based in South Vietnam, supported the North’s communist ambitions. They feared the growing dictatorial feel of the Catholic and pro -Western Ngo Dinh Diem’s administration in Saigon. This grassroots force alone threatened a civil coup, as the South’s Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) did not have the power to suppress them. Supplies from the North Vietnamese army were secretly pouring in via hidden jungle paths known as th e Ho Chi Minh Trail (after the Northern leader). As the conflict heated up, this collection of pro -communist forces would grow into the National Liberation Front (NLF), a mixture of Northern troops and Southern rebels under the direction of Hanoi. By 1963 , Ngo Dinh Diem would be executed by his former military. With this abdication of power, Kennedy increased the U.S. presence, trying to halt the spread of communism in Asia. Despite the clear advantages of the U.S. military, this was a conflict and environ ment in which the United States struggled to gain a foothold. Much like the failure in the Philippines during the Roosevelt Administration, the defensive advantages of the Asian climate and geography did not support the offensive styles of the United State s. This lack of unity was not unique to the South Pacific, however. Back in the states, there were numerous social movements that would reflect the changing political climate in America as well. Civil Rights Activism Though the efforts of JFK and Johnson addressed the need for greater civil rights activism, the enforcement of these freedoms would still require the dedication and action of the common people, a challenge that the nation’s youth took upon themselves. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commi ttee (SNCC) would emerge even before Kennedy’s election in 1960 with the goal of nonviolent protests against segregation laws and practices. The students who took part in these protests acted on the speeches of public figures such as Martin Luther King Jr . (MLK) and in the same spirit as Rosa Parks. U.S. history had proven that laws were only significant if enforced, and enforcement was only guaranteed when the appropriate pressures were felt. The leaders of HY 1120, American History II 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title this grassroots reform knew that in order to get the necessary enforcement, they had to make the actions of segregationists national news but not at the expense of their own cause , thus beg inning the era of nonviolent protest s: a sit -in at a W oolworth’s in Greensboro, North Carolina in February 1960 ; a bus trip starting in Washington D.C. and traveling into hostile locations in Alabama and Mississippi in May 1961 ; and a protest at the Lincoln Memorial in August 1963 . These were among the most widely reported forms of protest but only a small part of the action that was taken. Supporters of SNCC, and similar groups, such as the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), faced violence, terrorism, threats, humiliation, and little support from local authority. However, word got out, as did pictures and video. Soon , the entire world saw the horrors of segregation. It became clear that a legal system t hat was supposed to have been forcefully removed almost 85 years earlier was still a part of daily life for thousands of African Americans. Off -camera, things could get even worse, including the jailing of organizers, such as Fannie Lou Hamer, and assassin ations of major leaders, including Medgar Evers (1963) and MLK (1968). By 1964, this youth movement was openly non – gender – and non -color -specific and was growing ; however, it exerted very little national influence. As the violence escalated by those promo ting segregation, so did the action by those demanding its removal. March 1965 would be the setting for perhaps the most famous example of this demand —a march in Alabama from Selma to Montgomery as a symbol of unity and public resolve. By the end of what w ould be dubbed Bloody Sunday, the National Guard would be called by Johnson himself to protect the protesters. Though many events in the latter 1960s would take place in the southeastern states, violent segregation would also become common in the growing urban cities. Major riots occurred in Detroit ; Washington , D.C. ; and even Los Angeles. It was this unrest that would introduce another major voice: that of Malcolm X (Little). Like MLK , Malcolm X emphasized a need to act, but unlike the nonviolent, public nature of MLK’s message, Malcolm X advocated the idea of “Black Power.” He was famously quoted as saying “by any means necessary,” which many supporters took to heart. This mantra, whi ch had a wide meaning from beauty to success, would also inspire some distinctly violent reactions and associations, including members of SNCC, CORE, and a new group aimed at combatting white aggression directly: the Black Panther Party. Though Malcolm X’ s message was one deeply rooted in religious beliefs, like MLK , his more aggressive stance would gain criticism and concern in places where even MLK had found support, including the U.S. government. In 1964, a public dispute with his religious mentors woul d lead him to begin to spread a more inclusive message of hope. Upon his return, he began to spread a more hopeful message geared toward all people. Despite this change in message, Malcolm X would be murdered in public on February 21, 1965. It is unknown i f his slaying was due to his previously aggressive teachings or to his sudden change in beliefs. Johnson had seen enough. In August 1965, the Voting Rights Act was signed, which ensured protection fo r those who chose to vote. I n 1967, Affirmative Action b ecame a reality. By 1972, more than 1,000 elected African American leaders served in public offices throughout the nation, and hiring practices led to greater opportunity for all applicants. Rosa Parks with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (Nard the Bard , 2008/ 1955). HY 1120, American History II 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The dream of many advocates, including MLK, was becoming a reali ty. Sadly, many of those same figures would not live to see the dream fulfilled. On April 4, 1968, MLK was murdered on the balcony of Lorraine Motel in Memphis, T ennessee , news of which caused a nationwide period of grief and reaction , ranging from private vigils to riots. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 would be among Johnson’s last actions in office. It ensured equal chance for housing opportunity, equal jury selection, and federal action if the states refused enforcement. The initiative that had begun wit h JFK was seen through to the end under Johnson. Its influence was so powerful that this period became known as the Second Reconstruction. Women’s Rights and Feminism Another major reform movement would reemerge during this era: feminism. Like African Am ericans, women had been fighting for equality since the earliest years of the United States. Women had gained some successes, including a fiercely won suffrage battle, but they were still far from equal to men in the eyes of the law. This inequality affect ed employment, social, and economic opportunities. By the latter half of the 20th century, many of the reasons given to women for this disparity were no longer applicable. Single -parent households were on the rise, educational opportunities were competit ive between the two genders, and acceptable behaviors had evolved. The President’s Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW), a JFK initiative, even provided evidence of the differences that held women back. Women did gain ground due to several of the JFK and Johnson programs generally associated with Civil Rights, most notably Affirmative Action and Housing Rights. But unlike men, there was a less enthusiastic response to claims by women. There were even instances of jeering and teasing women’s advocates an d their claims in the media and government. Though the two sides would occasionally waver on their aggressiveness and tactics, sometimes to the point where there was minimal difference, two distinct sides would emerge in the late 1960s. The first would ad opt the spirit of trailblazers such as Susan B. Anthony and Carrie Catt, becoming a new generation of outspoken women. These included Betty Friedan and Pauli Murray, who would grow and use statistics to identify and address their lower -class status on a pu blic level. They were called the National Organization for Women (NOW). In the same fashion, but in a much more liberal approach, other women, including Aileen Hernandez, would begin a more aggressive campaign , which was dubbed as women’s liberation. It w as geared toward the total equality of women, including full inclusion of those institutions that men had developed over the nation’s history. Just as African American men had found success by causing news, women would also use this method. Tactics inclu ded public protest of beauty pageants and frank discussion of subjects such as rape, abortion, and other topics that were long thought to be taboo by the public. Ms . magazine, founded by Gloria Steinem, would even emerge on newsstands to put these concerns into print and spread the reform effort in its circulation. The magazine title was a play on an independent title for women, one not dictated by their age or marital status. It was intended to be a feminine version of “Mr.” In addition, there would be several high -profile wins toward equality at both the state and federal levels. These included Education Amendment Title IX in 1972, fair/equal credit in 1974, stronger equality in relation to military service in 1976, and guaranteed employer -supported mat ernity leave days in 1978. As equality efforts became more apparent, there was an unexpected turn: support for these institutions was not divided along gender lines. Many women refused to advocate for either NOW or women’s liberation. They felt that their issues were not represented by either, including how some minorities and creeds had overwhelming numbers in poverty or the lowest economic classes. These women saw the importance of addressing class differences as the first step toward the opportunity for all genders to evolve. In 1972, the Equal Rights Amendment was passed but still had to gain ratification to become law. The 19 th amendment, which rendered gender discrimination in voting illegal, was only ratified by the narrowest of margins, and seen by some as a measure of how far women had come in 50 years. What was not expected was the opposition: anti -ERA women. The next year, Roe v. Wade , however, complicated the matter with its HY 1120, American History II 7 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title hig hly contro versial decision that legalized abortion in all states. This essentially divided women along religious and political lines. In 1982, 10 years after passing through the House and Senate, the ERA bill was officially taken out of circulation when it could not obtain the required three -fourths majority (38 states) needed for ratification, topping out at 35. African Americans and women were the most numerous and loudest reformers of this period, but they were not the only groups who took advantage of this refor m atmosphere. Among the other voices were Native Americans, Latinos, homosexuals, and even the counterculture. The American Indian Movement (AIM) was a direct reference to the successful outcomes of the African American moves toward equality. Wanting to la y claim to lands taken away from their previous generations, American Indians took the opportunity to make their own national news with the takeover of Alcatraz Island off the coast of San Francisco for 19 months, starting in 1969. They claimed right of “f irst discovery.” In addition to the history of forceful removal, tribal lands disproportionately accounted for the level of poverty – stricken communities in the United States. In addition to the takeover of the prison, other aggressive tactics included occ upation of the offensively named Bureau of Indian Affairs and an occupation of the infamous Wounded Knee site. This last turned violent when demands that previous territorial treaties be honored , and this led to a near 3-month standoff with U.S. Marshals. Though none of these public actions were overwhelmingly effective, there were some reparations and protections given due to the public displays. The Latino population, alternatively known as Hispanic Americans in the 1960s, was already growing into one of the largest and most vocal populations in America. Similar to what was seen in previous generations of European migrants, however, this population was also one of the more commonly oppressed. Likely in response to those who entered the United States illeg ally, citizens of Latino descent had to endure the same negativity and dangers. Like Native Americans, this population was also disproportionately poor compared to other Americans. It was at this time that the Chicano movement would rise and draw attentio n to the horrific situations faced by Mexican Americans in California, many of whom were veterans, including their leader Cesar Chavez. With Dolores Huerta, another noted advocate, these two reformers were instrumental in the establishment of the first maj or union for such workers, the United Farm Workers (UFW). Fellow activists would later found the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Gay and Lesbian Community : A New Voice A third new voice would come from yet another population that had been long oppressed and, in general, was the victim of misunderstanding and irrational fear by the larger population. For many generations, individuals who identified as being gay or a lesbian kept their orientations secret or risked severe acts of intolerance . Unlike some of these other groups, there was no common ancestry that typecast this population. Instead, its membership included all races, genders, and creeds, which provided both opportunities and challenges. As these identities had not gained universal acceptance in any region, it was common to remain very secretive and even live lives contrary to their true identities to avoid violence, incarceration, and loss of property or even family. HY 1120, American History II 8 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Even with the high rate of reforms in the 1960s, this was one of the slower progressions. The first true victories came in the 1970s with the first antidiscrimination laws, openly gay elected political candidates, and a reversal of common myths, such as th e idea that same -sex orientation was a disease or a perversion. This movement, which would gain national strength in the latter 1970s, would still have to face some of its greatest struggles on the local level, much like African Americans had in the southe ast and urban communities. The Counterculture The counterculture, too, is a bit different from the other groups discussed because it, unlike any of the others, was a movement of choice. Prominently supported by whites of student age, this movement was one of action against the expectations of the time. Members’ rebellion ranged from hair and clothing styles, to music, poetry, and activism alongside many of these other activists as a united voice against discrimination. The first major organization of th is group, the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), had strong West Coast support. They publicly stated their disregard for the ideals of generations past and their intent to create a united future. To spread this message, there were numerous waves of musical innovation, including rock and psychedelic genres ; new written mediums , such as Beat poetry ; and a carefree attitude, such as the sexual revolution, rebelling against more established , moral -based institutions. As well -intentioned as this was, not all expressions of the counterculture would remain on this path. Protests would begin to emerge against established institutions’ hiring policies, the U.S. military, and infractions deemed contrary to the First Amendment. Soon these supporters were visibl e and unafraid to publicly challenge the “norm,” and these experiments would spread into dangerous vices such as drug use and violence. As this generation aged, many remained dedicated to the cause, which helped to evolve the status quo. Gay Rights protest in 1964 (Leffler, 1964) HY 1120, American History II 9 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title What would become perhaps the most significant challenge to, and rallying cry of, the Counterculture was the continued conflict in Vietnam. These same lower -income and -status teens, African Americans, Native Americans, and Latin Americans would disproportionately be the o nes to fight this war ; most of them were either trying to better their situation through service or were drafted. The Vietnam Conflict November 22, 1963, would produce another devastating blow. On his way to deliver a message of dedication to the anti -communist agenda, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was shot in downtown Dallas, Texas. He was killed instantly , and it produced a ripple effect across the globe. One of the most dynamic figures in American history and a champion of reform was gone in an instant. His legacy, while already storied, was years from expected completion. Johnson, the much more private and aggressive -tempe red Southern conservative, would have to pick up not only the reforms mentioned earlier, but was now the Commander in Chief in a losing war. America was committed to halting the communist threat, perhaps still fearing the result of non -action following th e Great W ar. JFK had overseen the introduction of new styles of warfare, including a biological tactic of spreading the destructive herbicide Agent Orange on apparent Vietcong camps, and Johnson would pick up where he had left off, sending additional troop s across the Pacific. However, this was not a war like anything the United States had seen before ; there were no fronts, cities, industrial capitals , or clear targets. Johnson, all the while, had his own private doubts. While quick action would secure some public “victories,” such as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which allowed Johnson to use military force in Vietnam without Congressional approval, the war would only continue to grow in size and concern. Organized bombings, significant increases in troo p levels, and more aggressive strategies only dug the United States deeper into the conflict. W hile this was going on, a new feeling of American imperialism was spreading. Once again, as had been seen during the Teddy Roosevelt Administration, the United S tates insinuated itself int o the business of Latin America and former protectorate territories, such as Panama and the Dominican Republic. The result would be ever -growing anti -American sentiment and economic losses. January 1968 would produce a turning p oint , but it would not be in the United States’ favor. The Tet Offensive would see the pro -communist forces take the offensive in a calculated, simultaneous attack on all American bases. The outcome, though more destructive for the attacking forces, put th e truth, hidden from the American public, into plain view; America was not “winning” the war. Johnson lost considerable support. Johnson would publicly admit it was time to begin peace talks, which were anything but productive, and then announced that he w ould not seek reelection . By 1968, in the wake of the escalating military conflict, liberal spending , and the concern over the ever – growing reform culture, there was a call for change back home. Those who had once backed JFK were vocally chastising Johnson’s ramping up of the conflict, which led to significant public displays from a wide array of voices. The Counterculture continued to grow, leading to its most famous event, a music festival held in 1969 in W oodstock, N ew York , which would capture th e attention of the world, with messages advocating peace , which resonat ed before and after protest anthems and expletive -laden orations. Also in the wake of the Tet fallout, the media also took shots at the continued violence. Most mainstream magazines, s ports figures, and even significant public figures would ask for an end to the violence and the threat of biological and nuclear threats, and look for peaceful resolutions. Though there would remain a significant pro -war sentiment (nicknamed “hawks”) in so me parts of the nation, many families (nicknamed Johnson being sworn in on Air Force One after JFK’s assassination, with Jacqueline Kennedy by his side. (Stoughton, 1963) HY 1120, American History II 10 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title “doves”) feared for their sons, brothers, and fathers, which, for the first time, meant that there was a large number of draft -age Americans who either fled the country or refused to follow the draft law. There was a plea for a return to conservatism in 1968, which was an election year. From that climate emerged a familiar face: former Vice President Richard Milhous Nixon. Nixon promised “an honorable end” to the fighting and was elected to the executive of fice by appealing directly to the conservative base that had elected Eisenhower, the “forgotten Americans —the non -shouters, the non -demonstrators” (Nixon, 1968 , para. 28 ). Nixon would prove to be an embodiment of favorable speech and questionable action, however, since he started with the continuation of some of the more successful reform era programs such as Pell grants and Social Security. He also made strides in diplomacy (or, more appropriately, détente) with the communist powers of the U.S.S.R. and Ch ina. Concerning Vietnam, Nixon would promise quick resolution, but the U.S. forces would remain in the country until 1972. Nixon, with Henry Kissinger, his national security advisor, would not pull out of the war just to leave the country open for communis t takeover; they wanted to help develop a significant military force in Vietnam, gradually pull U.S. troops out, and secretly liberate neighboring Cambodia. However, all of these plans ultimately backfired when they were leaked to the American peop le, who were reminded of the catastrophe that was the 1968 Tet Offensive , which caused heavy American military losses and sunk public support for the war . At this same time, other international events, including the Six -Day War between Israel and its neighbors, wo uld lead to increased domestic outcry in the coming years. For Nixon, it seemed that for every step forward, there was an equal or worse step back. One example of this was advocating for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) but then facing an unprece dented energy crisis and veto of the Clean Water Act of 1972. Multiple cases of negative press, both international and domestic, also plagued his administration, including the Yom Kippur War ; a failure to enforce civil rights ; negative action toward femini sm ; and the most notorious moment of his waning political career, his impeachment and resignation after the W atergate scandal , which will be discussed further in the next unit. The failure to quickly remove U.S. troops from Vietnam, too, had a similar eff ect, prompting numerous public outcries for an end to the war, including a 100,000 -person protest in Washington , D.C. , and a fatal shooting at Kent State University. Public support and military morale continued to drop as new evidence of the true nature of the war continued to emerge in the early 1970s. Finally, on January 27, 1973, a p eace treaty was signed in Paris. A s the civil war immediately started again, U.S. representatives desperately dispersed, some reportedly under gunfire by the once -friendly So uth Vietnamese who felt betrayed. The U.S. people, also feeling betrayed by their government, grew to recognize this as pointless and a waste. It was a black eye for the American people who felt betrayed by their government. Making it even worse, many of those who did return from fighting in Vietnam did not get the heroes’ reception they had earned from either the American people or their government. They were often treated like outcasts, finding it difficult to find work and discovering medical support wa s unreliable at best. The experience led to violent acts, as many were suffering from traumatic mental experiences such as post -traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Vietnam Conflict has remained in the American lexicon as “an unwinnable war,” but that pe rspective is not due only to the grueling military experience. This was an era of extremes. On the home front, the people found they could not trust the leaders they put in charge and that the laws they supported and had abided by were twisted and used to hide reality. At the same time, massive reforms caused conflict, between those for and against. Conservatives saw the nation they thought they knew in the 1950s crumble under the loudly visible Counterculture and various civil rights movements. And while t he liberals did gain some ground in their fights for equality, it was still difficult to secure enforcement of the rights they were promised as those who were losing their power, often on the local level, pushed back against the change. Going into the nex t unit, pay close attention to shifting attitudes, including how technology would radically redefine public understanding of policy and action. Even after Vietnam, the Cold War was still a very real threat. Also, out of the trials surrounding the Six -Day W ar, a new threat, like none other before it, would once again require the U.S. people to evolve and stand together in the face of imminent danger. HY 1120, American History II 11 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title References Kennedy, J. F. (1961). Inaugural address . Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/documents/ask -not.htm Leffler, W. K. (1964). Civil Rights Parade at the 1964 RNC [Photograph] . Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Civil_rights_parade_at_the_1964_RNC.jpg Nard the Bard . (2008 ). Rosa Parks [Phot ograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rosaparks.jpg (Original publication date 1955) Nixon, R. M. (1968 ). Address accepting the presidential nomination at the Republican national Convention in Miami Beach, Florida . Retrieved from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25968 Stoughton, C. (1963 ). LBJ taking the oath of office [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LBJ_taking_the_oath_of_office.jpg White House Photographic Office . (2010 ). Betty Ford ERA support [Photograph] . Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BettyFordERASupport.jpg Zleitzen . (2006 ). Bay of Pigs [Image]. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BayofPigs.jpg

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.