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I have 3 questions uploaded with answers and need to edit them by 7pm TODAY . PLEASE USE EASY LANGUAGE!!! I DONT WANT COMPLEX LANGUAGE AT ALLL! requirements: please use footnotes in any citation styl
Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 disrupted the absolutist social order and opened the path for radical political transformations. Which were the central institutions that emerged in Spain during this period and how these changes affected the development of Spanish America’s independence Answer: Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 disrupted the absolutist social order and opened a path for radical political transformations. This was time when entities started to transform territorial boundaries. In the early colonial periods, almost two hundred years ago, Latin America was ruled by two main royalties Spanish crown and Peru who attempted to organize the new territories by political entities and administration divisions. The attempt to organize the territories politically, economically and physically according to the valuable natural resources that were extracted at the time for instance, the main producers of silver and gold were Mexico and Bolivia. Spanish established the towns around the gold and silver mines and imported necessities from Europe. However, new Spanish and Peru royalties were formed in 1770. Spanish royalty decided to transport products to Latin America whereas Peru imported gold to European countries. This was an overview of how Latin America had been under the control of Spanish and Peru royalties. The break down of colonies to empires was the French and America’s different political views. The political view of French was; the idea of freedom, liberty, freedom of speech, personal freedom and political representatives. The idea of political representative and freedom of speech created a fuss among the political elite. Therefore, the radical change took place when the black slaves were freed. Freedom of black slaves stressed the white elite about the future production. On the other side, to defend from the British invasion or control Spanish reinforced patrolling which was costly at the time. However, the increasing production of silver in the Mexico covered these costs and Cities like Brazil and Lima became important places of production. Years later, Spanish had to grow more army for protection as other countries were interested taking over Spanish commerce. Highly ranked officers and soldiers immigrated to Spanish America for defendant. This created discontent as those officers took over creole and messo people’s positions. In other words, a new army was made by people who came from Spain and Portugal. The growing number of military personnel eventually became an economic burden. Therefore, the taxes were raised to accommodate, provide clothing and food to the army. This also increased the productivity. The crown did not receive the entire tax collected as creoles would keep some portion for themselves. However, this led to a change in the political structure. During the critical period, to control the major cities and small cities around it, a new city council was appointed and created subdelegate position. People responded to city major for any issues. Moreover, since the city boundaries were more defined speeded up the tax collecting process. The more country produced more the tax collected. The government of Spanish America kept monopoly on the city port and kept the trade limited to Spain. All the products were exported to Spain then to rest of the world. The idea of freedom of trade started to emerge among the upper class as they were losing the opportunity to earn extra profit by trading the world. This led to protest the government. The indigenous community build autonomy against high taxes on sugar, alcohol and tobacco. Similarly, different places across the Spanish America had different places to protest. Moreover, people also raised voices against corruption. Consequently, the crown put the pricing to improve the condition of monopoly. This created crash between the crown and elite even furthermore. However, this led to rebellion for freedom down the road. However, in 1780 rebellion up rose not solely considered heir of Inca but also created conciseness of being Inca people. The Haitian revolution was the first movement of freeing the black slaves. After the seven years of war, Spanish American government was under a heavy debts. The market was flooded with bonds to repay the national debt. Since the prices dropped, the ports were opened for neutral trade between US and Spain to increase the revenues. At the time, Napoleon wanted to control the new colonies of Latin America. Any political discussion was made in Spain and a new constitution was created. Napoleon formed the constitution and representative the citizen’s rights to Spain. This gave people an opportunity to control their country and contagion of French idea of freedom. Juntas, referred to a group of people who came together to discuss common life. All the juntas formed in different part of the country gained political power to represent the people. At this point people were independent, defending the king from Napoleon’s invasion even though the king was no more ruling them. This was the transformation of political structure to democracy. For the very first time, a parliament was established to represent the population. In America, parliament gave elite the chance to have a voice. The liberals proceeded with more movement as they wanted democracy, more freedom. So basically, the new structure held a place for monarchy but the rest of was organized and political ruled by the people. The overall power was divided among the divisions such as military, judiciary and more became part of the modern democracy. The parliament was the main power which was represented by the people not by monarchy. This type of political structure gave people freedom and civil rights. In conclusion, in the beginning the territorial were organized to have more control and economically viable. The resources and power were unevenly distributed. The upper class or the elite enjoyed the entire wealth whereas the lower the class lived a brutal life. Even though, the entire lower class or the black population were enslaved for production, they were never given the credit. The Spanish government hired military officers and more soldiers for the protection of natural resources and the country. The burden of the protection was passed down to the people in form of high taxes. To avoid competition, Spain maintained monopoly which minimized the opportunity to trade internationally. This led to a protest by the elites. However, more rebellions were provoked afterwards such as the consciousness of being Incas, protest for corruption and freedom of slaves. Napoleon idea of freedom eventually spread through out the country. People gained power through forming Juntas and organized a democratic political structure. This is how the power was divided among the people, military, judiciary etc. The Cuban Revolution of 1959 was a radical event that marked Latin American politics for many years. Which were the similarities and differences with other fundamental events like Salvador Allende’s Chile (1970-73) and the Sandinista Revolution of 1979? Why do you think the Cuban Revolution was triumphant and the others were not? Latin America entered in an integrated international market during 1850s and 1880s where it focused on exporting natural resources and other commodities. Establishment and intervention of government allowed to have improved infrastructure such as better rail roads. Latin America was able to export more because of the decreases in the rates of shipping due to integration of the world. Mass migration from Europe was significant because it filled the need of labour that was needed to run the agriculture industry and mining. Hence, these forces led to economic and social transformation in Latin America. Argentina, Brazil and Mexico were able to manage the transformation well whereas other countries in Latin America fell behind. The transformation in these three nations is the focus of this essay. These forces include exporting to the countries, British investment in infrastructure and mass migration. Most nations focused on one or two export commodities.1 For example, Mexico stressed on exporting minerals, Brazil on coffee and Argentina on food.2 When all Latin American countries were politically normalized British invested heavily in their economy. Argentina received 20 million pounds, brazil 38 million, Mexico 32 million, Peru 36 million pound, in total they received on hundred eighty million pounds in British investment. 3 Investments came from private lenders and government bonds. By the end of the 1880s total British investment in Argentina was 20,338,709 pounds. Mexico had investments of 32,740,916 and Brazil had 38,869, 067 pounds.4 These were huge investments that allowed these nations to build a strong infrastructure that included rail roads and bridges. These investments were important because this gave Latin America money to invest in the infrastructure which played a significant role to develop the economy. The rail roads were a huge development since the export of commodities heavily depended on transportation. This transformation caused the emergence of national markets. In 1880, there were 1,600 miles of rail roads in Argentina which increased to 21,200 by 1920s.5 These rail roads were built on most fertile land and therefore British investors put money in the development of rail roads. 6 Rail roads were built all over the country in Mexico by 1910 using investments from British. By 1910s Mexico had 15,000 miles of rail roads as compared to 400 miles in 1880.7 Means of communication expanded over the years.8 Brazil had rail roads of worth 32,478 kms in length. Mining in brazil and other nations was extremely difficult. Rail roads played a significant role to transport the commodities from one place to another. Thus, giving rise to exports which was the core of economic transformation in Latin America. Construction of rail roads enabled an inexpensive system to transport people, minerals and agricultural commodities. Rail roads also opened doors to cultivate new lands. Specially in Argentina, rail roads enabled to cultivate grain on the soil of Pampas. Mexican mining industry also recovered due to the transportation made available by the rail roads. Planters of Brazil pushed the cultivation of coffee in to the vast interior of Sao Paulo.9 Mass emigration of workers from Europe fulfilled the need of labour in Agriculture and mining industry. The number of immigrants in Argentina was 6,501,000. There were large plants of meat packing in Argentina that employed unskilled meat carriers and skilled butchers.10 A total of 4,361,000 immigrants arrived in Brazil and 270,000 in Mexico. 11 There were also a lot of diversity in the mining workers of Mexico. They had unskilled peons who only lifted and moved the heavy ores and experts in explosives.12 The life in mines of Brazil and Chile was harsh. Physical labour was exhausting, and workers did not have enough time to eat a meal. They also worked long hours. Working in copper mines was extremely disciplined, intense and brutal. 13 The mine tunnels were a like a hell. They were either extremely cold or hot. Copper dust in the air also affected their health.14 Agricultural labor switched back and forth between the farms and mines. The labor turnover was high due to harsh conditions. Also, living in the camps was expensive. Farmers usually worked in mines in the off season to earn money to buy land. Women also moved in and out of the camps. They worked as domestic servants to sell and prepare food and alcohol. Some also worked as prostitutes. People did not marry formally often since the life was too short because of working in mines. Thus, the social life of people was not great. 15 In conclusion, British investments in Latin America enabled it to develop rail roads and other infrastructure that forced economic and social transformation. Some nations such as Argentina. Brazil and Mexico had managed to improve its economy, but social life did not excel much since the working conditions were extremely poor. 3.) The Cuban Revolution of 1959 was a radical event that marked Latin American politics for many years. Which were the similarities and differences with other fundamental events like Salvador Allende’s Chile (1970-73) and the Sandinista Revolution of 1979? Why do you think the Cuban Revolution was triumphant and the others were not? The Cuban Revolution began in 1953 and was led by the 26th of July Movement, a revolutionary leftist group led by Fidel Castro and his brother, Raul Castro. The group was able to successfully overthrow the tyrannical dictator in power, Fulgencio Batista in 1959. The removal of Batista was monumental because it initiated a change in the political equilibrium. Castro’s communist government introduced a new set of domestic politics that provided freedom for the underprivileged citizens such as the African, female and middle class workers. In this essay, I will analyze why the Cuban Revolution of 1959 was triumphant in achieving independence for its country while other revolutions failed by first, listing the factors unique to the Cuban Revolution of 1959; second, listing the similarities and differences between the Cuban Revolution of 1959 to the 1973 coup d’etat against Salvador Allende in Chile, then to the 1979 Sandinista Revolution. First, there were many factors unique to the 1959 Cuban Revolution and not the other two revolutionary movements, that not only helped Cuba overthrow the old government, but also maintained the new government until present day. To overthrow the military power of Batista’s regime, Castro used propaganda, guerilla tactics and a very valuable member to his team, Che Guevaro. After Castro and his group lost a battle with Batista’s army, they took cover in the jungle to helped spread the word of Castro’s pursuit of freedom for the villagers in a nearby village which eventually increased his followers by a hundred-fold while giving the group a chance to covertly attack Batista’s regime. Castro’s continued attacks on Batista’s regime with his new army brought about more victories and caused Batista to flee Cuba.[2] Their victories in battle also relied heavily on Che Guevaro, the strategist and ideologist of the revolution.[3] Soon after Batista was removed from power, Castro forged an allegiance with the Soviet Union and built a communist government. His communist government continues to reign to date. Secondly, the comparison of the 1959 Cuban Revolution to the 1973 coup d’etat against Salvador Allende in Chile. While Castro fought his way to govern Cuba, Allende achieved his seat in power through an electoral vote. Allende was supported by the Popular Unity which involved the underrepresented masses such as the middle class workers and Aboriginals. Similar to Castro, Allende sought to reform Chile in terms of social and economic transformation, from nationalizing natural resources, from promoting land reform. [4] Thirdly, the comparison of the 1959 Cuban Revolution to the 1979 Sandinista Revolution. [1] https://www.invent-the-future.org/2017/01/to-honour-fidel-castro-means-to-continue-his-work-of-fighting-imperialism-and-building-socialism/ [2] https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-cuban-revolution-causes-effects.html [3] https://www.ukessays.com/essays/history/assess-the-success-of-the-cuban-revolution-history-essay.php [4] https://www.telesurenglish.net/analysis/A-Creature-Called-Revolution-Castro-And-Allende-Think-LatAm-20181109-0026.html 1 Page 302 chapter 11 2 PPt week 2 slide 41 3 Lecture 28 Table 2.2 4 Week 2 Slide 47 5 Chapter 11 table 11.1 page 306 6 Lecture 28 7 Chapter 11 table 11.1 page 306 8 Table 8.1 9 Page 305 chapter 11 10 Page 308 chapter 11 11 Page 312 table 11.2 12 Page 308 chapter 11 13 309 14 310 15 310

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