Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 7 and week 8 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assignment just require a good reading of the slides and involves 2 short movies as well  and then you will be eligible  to answer question. Mandatory video for this week is “The Story of Stuff”, which can be watched here:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GorqroigqMAlso, I  would encourage you to watch the documentary called “Trashed (2012)”, which is still very relevant. A short 20-min excerpt can be wtched here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yg0UlnEjVH4  Finally, I invite you to watch an informative video from the Columbia Business School that discusses renewable energy from financial and policy perspectives:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDEIvrTFXyo these videos and slides that I have attached will help you find the answers for the assignment that I have attached with it Answers should be relating to the material from the slides. Please find below Assignment 4. This assignment is based on reading materials assigned for weeks 7-8 Once you have finished answering the questions, rename the file following this convention:Assignment 3 [your name] [your ID].For example, if your name was Tyler Miller and ID was 3055648, you would name the file as:Assignment 3 Tyler Miller 3055648 Please upload files in MS Word compatible formats only (*.docx, *.rtf). DO NOT submit in any other format. DO NOT send scanned images or insert them into the document. Also, if you miss the deadline, a 10% of the total points per day penalty will be applied.
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 7 and week 8 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
Assignment 4 Marks obtained Part A (20) Part B (10) Part C (20) Part D (10) Total (60) Name (full name): Student ID: Failure to write full name and ID will result in a 2% penalty on the marks obtained. Answer the questions below. For multiple choice questions, please make the chosen answer (the entire sentence) BOLD or underlined. Part A: Solid and Hazardous Waste [20 points] 1. Waste incineration can lead to: [1] a. less need for landfills b. less water and air pollution c. discourage waste production d. all of the above 2. How much edible food is thrown away in the US and Canada each year? [1] a. 560,000 tonnes b. 670,000 tonnes c. 760,000 tonnes d. None of the above 3. Incineration is one of the most widely used means of waste reduction in Canada. [1] a. True b. False 4. Waste reduction includes which of the following? [1] a. Reduce and reuse b. Compost c. Change industrial processes to eliminate use of harmful chemicals d. All of the above 5. Which sector generates the most solid waste in North America? [1] a. Municipalities b. Industry c. Agriculture d. Mining and energy extraction Plastic garbage bags were first introduced in which country? [1] Germany UK US Canada Industrial ecology is based on: [1] the principle of bio-mimicry zero-waste closed-loop recycling all of the above (a) and (b) only 8. A material used to remove solvents and pesticides from contaminated soil and groundwater is made from: corn starch extracts from willow and poplar sunflower roots none of the above 9. Which of the following chemicals can cause nervous system damage, especially in young children? [1] a. Pb b. Hg c. Dioxin c. All of the above 10. Approximately what percent of municipal waste in Canada is organics? [1] a. 20% b. 40% c. 50% d. None of the above The Tar Ponds in Sydney contained: [1] Arsenic PAHs PCBs All of the above 12. A sanitary landfill: [1] a. waste is compacted and covered everyday b. leachate is collected and treated c. clay and plastic lining are used to prevent leaks d. all of the above 13. Scientists have used plants and algae grown in wetlands to extract hazardous materials from liquid waste water. This is also known as: [1] In-situ remediation Bio-remediation Phyto-remediation Both (a) and (b) 14. Which of the following could cause Hg pollution? [1] a. Old thermostats b. CFL bulbs c. Coal burning d. All of the above 15. Using discarded paper to make paper towel is an example of: [1] Secondary recycling Open-loop recycling Downcycling All of the above 16. What does the following terms stand for? [1] a. NIMBY: b. NOPE: The amount of per capita municipal solid waste generated by non-residential sources per year is approximately: 520 kg 453 kg 256 kg none of the above 18. A source separated system may be preferred over a centralized approach to waste collection because: [1] it produces less air and water pollution it has lower capital cost it has less contamination issue all of the above 19. The “take back” requirement means that manufacturers take full responsibility for their products when they reach end-of-life. Such programs for cars are already in place in: Australia EU Japan All of the above 20. Provide two reasons why a “service-flow” economy can promote efficiency and durability. [1=0.5×2] a. b. Part B: The Story if Stuff video [10 points] The conventional model of the “material economy system” is faulty, because: [1] It is a linear system It cannot be sustained indefinitely when supply is limited The model has important components that are missing All of the above Of the 100 largest economies in the world, how many are corporations? [1] 36 25 51 67 The US population is 5% of the global population but it consumes:? [1] 66% of the world’s resources 56% of the world’s resources 25% of the world’s resources 30% of the world’s resources What does BFR stand for and why is this a major health risk? [1 = 0.5×2] How do the corporations keep the cost of consumer products down? [1] What percent of stuff that we run through the material flow system are discarded within six months? [1] 1% 33% 67% 99% What are two strategies used by global corporation to increase the sale of consumer goods and services: [1 = 0.5×2] For every one unit of post-consumer waste, how many units of pre-consumer level waste is generated that makes the contribution of recycling rather small? [1] 2,000 times 3,000 times 6,000 times 1,000 times Which man-made chemical has been mentioned as the most toxic? Which process contributes to producing most of that toxin? [1 = 0.5×2] What are the two core principles of the new circular economy model that we should be striving for as a society? [1=0.5×2] Part C: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [20 points] 1. When two useful forms of energy are produced from the same fuel source, the process is called: [1] a. Active power generation b. Passive power generation c. Feed-in power generation d. Cogeneration 2. Mention two effective ways to save energy and/or minimize energy loss: [0.5×2=1] a. b. 3. Which Canadian scientist produced the world’s first zero-emission transit bus that is now being used all over the world? [1] a. Geoffrey Ballard b. Amory Lovins c. Tasios Melis d. Bragy Arnason A small mechanical battery that can quickly store and release large amounts of electrical energy is called: [1] a. nano-battery b. thermal wave battery c. ultra-capacitor d. hydrogen cell 5. Which province of Canada has the highest installed wind power capacity? [1] a. Quebec b. British Columbia c. Nova Scotia d. Ontario 6. A super-insulated house uses: [1] a. passive solar energy b. Waste heat from appliances and occupants c. Both (a) and (b) d. None of the above 7. Which one of the following is an example of a passive solar heating system? [1] a. Greenhouse b. Strawbale house c. both (a) and (b) d. None of the above 8. Electricity produced from a nuclear power plant is being used for resistance heating by households in a rural community. If the uranium mining efficiency is 82%, processing and transportation efficiency is 55%, power plant efficiency is 30%, transmission efficiency is 85%, and 100% of the electricity reaching the households is converted into heat, what is the overall efficiency of this home heating scheme? [1] a. 70.4% b. 63.0% c. 42.9% d. 11.5% 9. Which system uses heliostats? [1] a. Power tower b. Solar collector c. Green roofs d. None of the above 10. The net energy use efficiency of a passive solar system is higher compared to that of an active solar system by a factor of: [1] a. Approximately 2.6 b. Approximately 3.5 c. Approximately 4.7 d. Approximately 5.3 11. Which of the following has the potential to become the cleanest and most abundant raw material for producing hydrogen used in fuel cells? [1] Hydrocarbons Landfill gas b. Water c. Natural gas 12. The advantage of a micro hydro schemes is that they: [1] a. Do not block or divert flow b. Do not cause large scale upstream flooding c. Do not block migration of aquatic species d. All of the above 13. Which of the following sources of energy has the potential to become the cheapest and cleanest in the near future if the technology was mass produced and implemented in suitable locations? [1] a. Small hydro b. Solar thermal c. Wind power d. Nuclear power 14. A bus system in Halifax is run based on biodiesel made from: [1] a. Poultry waste b. Soybean and canola c. Wasted cooking oil d. Fish waste 15. Bio-gas digesters that produce methane from plant and animal waste use a process that is: [1] a. Aerobic b. Anaerobic c. Similar to composting d. None of the above 16. Which country is the world’s largest producer of ethanol fuel? [1] a. Canada b. Brazil c. the US d. Argentina 17. Geo-exchange is a mechanism that involves using buried pipes and pumps to: [1] a. Bring out heat energy from underground to the surface b. Bring in heat from the surface to the underground c. Both (a) and (b) d. None of the above 18. Biogas is produced from anaerobic decomposition of plant and animal waste and is comprised of approximately: [1] a. 60% CO2 and 40% methane b. 50% methane and 50% CO2 c. 60% methane and 40% CO2 d. 65% CO2 and 35% methane 19. Which country in the world was the first to embrace the fuel cell technology in a major way that would be supported by abundant geothermal energy, hydropower and offshore wind power? [1] a. Korea b. Norway c. Sweden d. Iceland 20. Biofuels can be produced from sources such as: [1] a. fast growing trees b. crop residues c. animal manure d. all of the above Part D: The Challenge with Renewable Energy is No Longer Economics video [10 points] What percent of all new energy projects are now renewable energy projects? [1] about one third (~33%) about one quarter (~25%) more than 50% none of the above The video talked about recent reverse policy moves in the US, such as rolling back: [1] CAFE regulation on methane leakage from natural gas network both (a) and (b) none of the above What are the two main challenges to electrification of the transportation sector as mentioned in the video? [2] a. b. Mention two factors that are significant barriers to private investment in off-shore wind energy projects: [2] Renewable energy sectors has come a long way in becoming competitive to the fossil fuel based industry when it comes to generating electricity. However, there are still some significant challenges faced by the industry. Mention four such challenges mentioned in the video. [4] Page 8 of 8
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 7 and week 8 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Key Concepts ▪ Solid waste – types and amounts ▪ Methods to reduce waste ▪ Industrial ecology ▪ Methods of dealing with wastes ▪ How is hazardous waste regulated ? ▪ Transitions to a low-waste society 2 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Waste Production in North America ▪ One-third of all global waste comes from less than 5% of the global population . ▪ Municipal solid waste – Increased 3x from 1960–2005 – Per capita increase of 70% from 1960–1990 3 Source: Data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Bureau of Mines, and Statistics Canada. Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Garbage: Municipal Solid Waste ▪ Per person, 777 kg of garbage is produced ▪ Waste management costs $2.6 billion ▪ E-waste growing rapidly (725 000 tonnes) 4 Source: Statistics Canada Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What D oes It M ean to L ive in a H igh- W aste S ociety ? ▪ Wasting valuable resources – North Americans spend more $ on trash bags than 90 other countries spend on everything – Each year, we throw away • 670 000 tonnes of edible food • 186 billion pieces of junk mail • 50 million computers • Enough diapers to go from the E arth to the moon and back seven times 5 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Less Waste ▪ Waste M anagement – High-waste approach – Burying, burning, shipping ▪ Waste R eduction – Low-waste approach – Refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, and recover 6 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Priorities in Waste Reduction 7 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How C an W e R educe S olid W aste ? ▪ Consume less ▪ Redesign manufacturing processes and products to – Use less material and energy – Produce less waste and pollution ▪ Develop products easier to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, and recycle ▪ Design products to last longer ▪ Eliminate or reduce unnecessary packaging 8 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s I ndustrial E cology ? ▪ Design industrial processes to mimic nature – Recycle and reuse – Resource exchange webs (like food webs) – Biomimicry in innovation 9 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Industrial Ecosystem 10 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s a S ervice- F low E conomy ? ▪ Renting services instead of buying things ▪ Companies makes more profit if they use minimum materials, product easy to maintain, repair, remanufacture, reuse , or recycle ▪ Eco – L easing ▪ Renting the services that goods provide ▪ Minimal ownership of physical goods 11 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Reuse ▪ Reduces resource use ▪ Saves input energy and money ▪ Reduces pollution and waste ▪ Creates local jobs ▪ Design products for reuse – Shopping bags, food containers, shipping pallets, etc. 12 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Energy Consumption of 350 mL B everage C ontainers 13 Source: Data from Argonne National Laboratory. Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Recyling ▪ Primary ( closed-loop ) – Turn waste into same class of product ▪ Secondary ( open-loop ) – Downcycling ▪ Pre – C onsumer vs . Post – C onsumer 14 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Composting ▪ Recycling plant nutrients to soil ▪ Of biodegradable wastes, – Some European cities compost 85% – North Americans only compost 5% ▪ Large-scale vs . backyard vs . vermicompost 15 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How S hould W e R ecycle S olid W aste ? ▪ Option 1: Centralized recycling of mixed waste (MRF) 16 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Should We Recycle Solid Waste? ▪ Option 2: Separation at source – Less air and water pollution – Lower cost – Uses less energy – Provides more jobs – Produces more valuable recyclables – Education benefit but dependence on consumer 17 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case S tudy : Is It F easible to R ecycle P lastics ? ▪ Only 10% recycled ▪ Challenges – Difficult to isolate from mixed resins and stabilizers – Low material yield – Low primary resource cost 18 Source: Adapted from Society of the Plastics Industry Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Why D o W e N ot H ave M ore R euse and R ecycling ? ▪ Prices do not reflect the product life- cycle . ▪ Higher tax breaks on resource extraction ▪ Low tipping fees ▪ Fluctuating demand ▪ Minimal product stewardship 19 © Syda Productions/Shutterstock Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Burning Solid Waste: Waste-to-Energy Incineration • Reduced trash volume • Less need for landfills • Low water pollution • Quick and easy 20 • High cost • Air pollution (especially toxic dioxins) • Produces a highly toxic ash • Encourages waste production • Discourages recycling and waste reduction Advantages Disadvantages Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Waste-to-Energy Incinerator 21 Source: Adapted from EPA, 1990, Let’s Reduce and Recycle. Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Burying Solid Wastes ▪ Open dump (illegal in Canada) ▪ Sanitary landfill – Leachate collection – Monitoring wells – Landfill gases 22 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Sanitary Landfill 23 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Sanitary Landfills • No open burning • Little odour • Low groundwater pollution if sited properly • Can be built quickly • Low operating costs • Can handle large amounts of waste • Filled land can be used for other purposes • No shortage of landfill space in many areas 24 Advantages Disadvantages • Noise and traffic • Dust • Air pollution from toxic gases and volatile organic compounds • Releases greenhouse gases (methane and CO 2) unless they are collected • Groundwater contamination • Slow decomposition of wastes • Discourages recycling and waste reduction • Eventually leaks and can contaminate groundwater Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s H azardous W aste ? ▪ Any discarded solid or liquid that has the potential to harm people ▪ Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System ( WHMIS ) – Labelling – Training – Information 25 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hazardous Waste in Y our Ho me 26 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What T o D o W ith H azardous W aste ? ▪ Management – Output approach – Burning or burying – Expensive – Pollution outputs ▪ Reduction – Input approach – Reuse or recycle – Consider non -hazardous alternatives 27 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Priorities F or D ealing W ith H azardous W aste 28 Source: Data from U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How C an W e R emove or D etoxify H azardous W aste ? ▪ Physical methods – Distillation, filtration, precipitation ▪ Chemical methods ▪ Bioremediation – Using bacteria or enzymes ▪ Phytoremediation – Using plants or algae 29 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Phytoremediation 30 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. 31 Phytoremediation : Trade-offs Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Deep Underground Wells: Trade-offs 32 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Surface Impoundments : Trade-offs 33 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Secure Hazardous Waste Landfills 34 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Lead ▪ Key P roblem : Lead poisoning in children ▪ Sources – Leaded gasoline (phased out by 1990 but took longer in developing countries) – Lead paints – Lead in plumbing 35 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Lead Poisoning Solutions 36 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Mercury ▪ Key P roblem : Aquatic contamination ▪ Sources – Vapourized elemental Hg – Inorganic particulate Hg 2+ salts – Organomercury compounds in fish 37 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Cycling of Mercury in Aquatic Environments 38 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Mercury Pollution Solutions 39 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Dioxins ▪ Potentially highly toxic and persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in contaminated food ▪ Sources – Waste incineration – Fireplaces – Coal-fired power plants – Paper production – Sewage sludge 40 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Achieving a Low-Waste Society ▪ Local grassroots action ▪ International ban on 12 persistent organic pollutants (the dirty dozen) ▪ Key Principles – Everything is connected . – There is no “ away .” – Dilution is not the solution . – Produce less pollutants, reuse, and recycle . 41 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Conclusion ▪ Societies produce waste . ▪ The k ey is to manage that waste such that it doesn’t harm ecosystems or populations . ▪ Some waste is more toxic than others . ▪ Reducing waste and better management are among the solutions . 42
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 7 and week 8 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
www.50by30.org A Green Plan for Manitoba vision: To increase Manitoba’s renewable energy use to 50% (from the present 30%) by 2030 without increasing global GHGs. no single sector can do this alone • spend more of our money here • reduce our greenhouse gases • grow our green industries • Increase our use of renewable energy Why 50 by ‘30? RED Strategy: – R enewables • hydro • geothermal • biomass • solar • wind – E nergy efficiency gains – D emand reduction programs How will we get to 50 by ‘30 ? How will we pay for 50 by 30? WE’RE ALREADY SPENDING THE MONEY • $ 1B – natural gas • $4B – gasoline & diesel electricity electric heat industrial natural gas gasoline & diesel To date energy sources fossil fuels renewables 1990 2009 229 PJ 262 PJ coal oil natural gas hydro To date wind biomass solar geothermal energy sources oil 1990 2009 229 PJ 262 PJ coal oil natural gas hydro If current trends continue wind biomass solar geothermal energy sources 1990 2030 2009 229 PJ 262 PJ ~316 PJ coal oil natural gas hydro A Green Plan wind biomass solar geothermal hydro wind biomass solar geothermal natural gas refined oil products (gas & diesel) coal, propane & derivatives energy sources 1990 2030 2009 229 PJ 262 PJ ~316 PJ Unrealistic? Look at just one example: 0 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 1983 1988 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 Ground -Source Heat Pumps Units Installed NFAT -Manitoba needs to look at our overall energy future, not only a focus on less or more hydro -What is the NEED FOR? – Serious Efficiency and Demand Reduction Goals – i.e. a DSM program (DUNSKY report) – Growth of Biomass/Solar/Geothermal heating – Reduction in use of non -renewable energy – Economic growth opportunities – Reduction in GHGs 50by30 – A Green Plan Manitoba needs an energy policy…with meaningful targets. a few examples • Vermont • North Dakota • Denmark (100 by 50!) • USA (25 by 25) • British Columbia 50by30 – Manitoba’s Energy Policy? – The numbers can vary, but the point is to set a target, a vision, a direction – A plan WITH targets provides a context for all energy decision making – Why build a new dam? – Why reduce natural gas usage? – Why increase efficiency goals? Without a goal…we float on trends …And limited imaginations as to what can be achieved BC’s Clean Energy Act … The Clean Energy Act also raises the bar for BC Hydro’s reliance on demand -side measures. Demand – side management (DSM) is crucial for meeting the Act’s requirement to meet 66 per cent of all new power demand through conservation by 2020 . NFAT Analysis -NOT about technology battles -NOT about more dams or oil wells -MUST be about long term, comprehensive planning and thinking which prioritizes: – Local Economic Growth – Environmental Protection – Social Health -Needs to examine alternatives to electric generation and heating Technologies Renewables Efficiency Demand electricity – large -scale hydro – small -scale hydro – wind – photovoltaic solar – PowerSmart – PAYS – LEDs – fluorescents – lighting design heating – geothermal – solar wall – water -based solar – biomass (BEN) o policy o supply o demand o education – PowerSmart – PAYS – high -efficiency boilers & furnaces – insulation – building retrofits – building design – passive solar transportation – hybrid vehicles – low -fossil fuels – electric vehicles o electrification infrastructure – transit – mileage standards o truck engine design – truck aerodynamic enhancements – airships – goods -transit efficiencies – carsharing – carpooling – biking – urban design – rural design Recommedations 1. Focus on building an energy policy for Manitoba with targets – including: – R E D – Multiple technological solutions – Community involvement and benefit 2. Combine agendas – eg . Lake Winnipeg clean up and biomass fuel connection Targets 1. DSM to at least match BC 2. Replace electric heat with geothermal, biomass and solar 3. Limit growth of natural gas with biomass heat 4. Invest in developing other renewable energy sectors 5. Develop more Wind and Solar capacity Renewable, Sustainable, Profitable
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 7 and week 8 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 18 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Key Concepts Energy efficiency Renewable energy resources – Solar (heat, electricity) – Water (hydroelectricity, tidal) – Wind – Biomass – Geothermal Use of hydrogen as a fuel Micropower Economics and politics of renewable energy 2 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s E nergy E fficiency ? Useful energy produced by a device compared to total energy output (including heat) 3 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s N et E nergy E fficiency ? To improve net energy efficiency : 1. Minimize the number of conversion steps 2. Maximize the efficiency of each step 4 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Reducing Energy Waste Solutions. Reducing Energy Waste. Advantages of reducing energy waste. Global improvements in energy efficiency could save the world about $1 trillion (U.S.) per year—an average of $114 million per hour! • Prolongs fossil fuel supplies • Reduces oil imports • Very high net energy • Low cost • Reduces pollution and environmental degradation • Buys time to phase in renewable energy • Less need for military protection of Middle East oil resources • Improves local economy by reducing flow of money out to pay for energy • Creates local jobs © Eugene Shapovalov /Shutterstock 5 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency ▪ Industry – Cogeneration – Replace inefficient electric motors – Higher efficiency lighting ▪ Transportation – Increased fuel economy – Hybrid -electric vehicles – Fuel-cell vehicles ▪ Building Design – Insulation – Energy-efficiency standards for fixtures 6 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How C an W e S ave E nergy in Industry? ▪ Cogeneration (c ombined heat and power [CHP]) – Produce two useful forms of energy • For example, steam + electricity – Energy efficiency: 80–90% • vs . 30–40% for coal/nuclear electricity-only – 66% less CO 2 per unit of energy than coal ▪ Replace inefficient electric motors – Inefficient non-adjustable power output – May consume 10x more power than it cost to purchase ▪ Higher efficiency lighting – Fluorescent or LED 7 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Can We Save Energy in T ransportation ? • Fuel E fficiency – Promote stronger minimum standards, offer tax breaks 8 Source: Data from the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, 2012 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. All-Electric Car Problem is the distance one can drive on a single charge Tesla M odel S runs for about 400 kilometres. But it’s very expensive . © JOHANNES EISELE/Getty Images 9 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hybrid – Electric Internal Combustion • Increases fuel efficiency by only using the gasoline engine for acceleration or hill climbing • Relies on rechargeable electric motor for all other functions • The Chevy Volt even recharges itself, using the gasoline engine . 10 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Fuel Cells Source: Concept information from DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Ballard, Toyota, and Honda . A. Fuel cell stack: Hydrogen and oxygen combine chemically to produce electricity . B. Fuel tank: Hydrogen gas or liquid or solid metal hydride stored on board or made from gasoline or methanol . C. Turbo compressor Compressor sends pressurized air to fuel cell . D. Traction inverter: Module converts DC electricity from fuel cell to AC for use in electric motor. E. Electric motor and transaxle: Electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy to turns wheels. 11 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. 1. Building Design: Superinsulated Housing How C an W e S ave E nergy in B uildings ? Courtesy of www.StrawBale.com 12 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Can We Save Energy in Buildings? Continued 2. Modifications to existing buildings ▪ Insulate and plug leaks . ▪ Use energy-efficient windows . ▪ Stop other heating/cooling losses . ▪ Use efficient house and water heating . ▪ Use efficient lighting . ▪ Unplug devices when not in use . 13 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Can We Save Energy in Buildings? Continued 2 Healthy House in Toronto Source: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). CMHC’s Family-Occupied Healthy House in Toronto, 2010. All rights reserved. Reproduced with the consent of CMHC. All other uses and reproductions of this material are expressly prohibited . 14 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Main Types of Renewable Energy ▪ Solar ▪ Flowing water ▪ Wind ▪ Biomass ▪ Geothermal ▪ Hydrogen fuel 15 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Passive and Active Solar Heating 16 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Solar Heating House Design 17 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Passive or Active Solar Heating Trade-offs, Passive or Active Solar Heating: Advantages and disadvantages of heating a house with passive or active solar energy. Pick the single advantage and the single disadvantage that you think are the most important. Advantages • Energy is free. • Net energy is moderate (active) to high (passive). • Quick installation • No CO2 emissions • Very low air and water pollution • Very low land disturbance (built into roof or window) • Moderate cost (passive ) Disadvantages • Needs access to sun 60% of the time • Blockage of sun access by other structures • Needs heat storage system • High cost (active) • Active system needs maintenance and repair. • Active collectors unattractive (Left): © Pavel Vakhrushev /Shutterstock; ( Right): © Yulia Grigoryeva /Shutterstock 18 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Solar Energy for High -Temperature Heat and Electricity Trade –Offs, Solar Energy for High-Temperature Heat and Electricity: Advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy to generate high-temperature heat and electricity. Pick the single advantage and the single disadvantage that you think are the most important. Advantages • Moderate net energy • Moderate environmental impact • No CO2 emissions • Fast construction (1–2 years) • Costs reduced with natural gas turbine backup Disadvantages • Low efficiency • High costs • Need backup or storage system • Need access to sun most of the time • High land use • May disturb desert areas (Left): © Pavel Vakhrushev /Shutterstock; ( Right): © Yulia Grigoryeva /Shutterstock 19 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity ▪ Photovoltaic (PV) cells use a semiconductor to absorb light and directly generate DC electrical current . ▪ R&D advances in thinner, cheaper, and flexible materials for PV . 20 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. 21 Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Continued Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Continued 2 Trade –Off, Solar Cells: Advantages and disadvantages of using solar cells to produce electricity. Pick the single advantage and the single disadvantage that you think are the most important . Advantages • Fairly high net energy • Works on cloudy days • Quick installation • Easily expanded or moved • No CO2 emissions • Low environmental impact • Lasts 20–40 years • Low land use (if on roof or built into walls or windows) • Reduces dependence on fossil fuels Disadvantages • Needs access to sun • Low efficiency • Needs electricity storage system or backup • High land use (solar-cell power plants) could disrupt desert areas. • High costs (but should be competitive in 5–15 years) • DC current must be converted to AC . (Left): © anyaivanova /Shutterstock; ( Right): © trekandshoot /Shutterstock 22 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity From t he Water Cycle ▪ Water flow from high to low elevations in rivers and streams can be used to turn a turbine and generate electricity . ▪ Electricity supplied by hydroelectric power (2012) – 19% globally – 97% in Norway – 52% in New Zealand – 60% in Canada – 17% in China – 7% in the United States 23 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity From t he Water Cycle : Large- or Small – S cale ? ▪ Streamflow can be controlled and more power generated by the use of a dam or reservoir . ▪ Large-scale hydropower – High dam across a large river to create a reservoir – Issues with flooding, ecological impact on fish ▪ Small-scale (run-of-river) hydropower – Low or no dam used in a small stream – Lower impact, but less reliable flow/output 24 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity From the Water Cycle: Large Scale Hydropower–Trade -Offs Trade –Offs, Large -Scale Hydropower Advantages and disadvantages of using large dams and reservoirs to produce electricity. Pick the single advantage and the single disadvantage that you think are the most important. Advantages • Moderate to high net energy • High efficiency (90%) • Large untapped potential • Low-cost electricity • Long life span • No CO2 emissions during operation in temperate areas • May provide flood control below dam • Provides water for year-round irrigation of cropland • Reservoir is useful for fishing and recreation . Disadvantages • High construction costs • High environmental impact from flooding land to form a reservoir • High CO2 emissions from biomass decay in shallow tropical reservoirs • Floods natural areas behind dam • Converts land habitat to lake habitat • Danger of collapse • Uproots people • Decreases fish harvest below dam • Decreases flow of natural fertilizer (silt) to land below dam (Left): © Petr Malyshev /Shutterstock; (Right ): © Andrew Zarivny /Shutterstock 25 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity from Wind : Available Wind Energy in Canada Source: Canadian Wind Atlas, http:// www.windatlas.ca /en/EU_50m_national.pdf, Environment Canada, 2003. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2012. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of the Environment, 2003 . 26 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity from Wind: Installed Windmill Capacity A cross Canada Source: Courtesy of Canadian Wind Energy Association ( CanWEA ). 27 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity from Wind: Wind Energy in Ontario Source: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Wind Resource Atlas , http :// www.ontariowindatlas.ca /en . 28 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity from Wind: Growth of Wind Energy ▪ Second fastest -growing source of energy – More than 100x since 1990 ▪ Existing installed capacity (2014 ) – China 31% – United States 18% – Canada 2.6% (7 th ranked) 29 Source: Courtesy of Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA ). Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Producing Electricity from Wind: Growth of Wind Energy continued ▪ Newly installed capacity (during 2014) – China 45% – United States 9% – Canada 3.6% (6 th ranked) ▪ Untapped available resource (2009) – Canada: 40x current electricity needs 30 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Wind Power: Trade-Offs Trade –Offs, Wind Power: Advantages and disadvantages of using wind to produce electricity. Wind power experts project that by 2025 wind power could supply more than 10% of the world’s electricity and 20% of the electricity used in Canada. Pick the single advantage and the single disadvantage that you think are the most important. Advantages • Moderate to high net energy yield • High efficiency • Moderate capital cost • Low electricity cost (and falling) • Very low environmental impact • No CO2 emissions • Quick construction • Easily expanded • Can be located at sea • Land below turbines can be used to grow crops or graze livestock . Disadvantages • Steady winds needed • Backup systems needed when winds are low • High land use for wind farm • Visual pollution • Noise when located near populated areas • May interfere in flights of migratory birds and kill birds of prey (Left): © Rene Hartmann/Shutterstock; ( Right): © pedrosala /Shutterstock 31 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Is B iomass U sed to P rovide E nergy ? Made of plant materials and animal wastes Solid biomass – B urned directly as fuel Gaseous biofuels Liquid biofuels 32 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Solid Biomass Trade –Offs, Solid Biomass: General advantages and disadvantages of burning solid biomass as a fuel. Pick the single advantage and single disadvantage that you think are the most important. Advantages • Large potential supply in some areas • Moderate costs • No net CO2 increase if harvested and burned sustainably • Plantations can be located on semiarid land not needed for crops. • Plantations can help restore degraded lands. • Can make use of agricultural, timber, and urban wastes Disadvantages • Nonrenewable if harvested unsustainably • Moderate to high environmental impact • CO2 emissions if harvested and burned unsustainably • Low photosynthetic efficiency • Soil erosion, water pollution, and loss of wildlife habitat • Plantations could compete with cropland. • Often burned in inefficient and polluting open fires and stoves (Left): © chocorange /Shutterstock ; (Right): © janceluch /Shutterstock 33 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Biodiesel ▪ Diesel fuel made from biomass ▪ Has low carbon emissions and no sulphur ▪ But it has lower caloric value than conventional diesel ▪ Can also “gel” at low temperatures, harming engines 34 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Biogas ▪ Bacteria convert biomass into gaseous biofuels ▪ Inefficient, unreliable , and generates CO 2 35 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Using L iquid E thanol for F uel Trade –Offs, Ethanol Fuel: General advantages and disadvantages of using ethanol as a vehicle fuel compared to gasoline. Pick the single advantage and single disadvantage that you think are the most important. Advantages • High octane • Some reduction in CO2 emissions • Reduced CO emissions • Can be sold as gasohol • Potentially renewable Disadvantages • Large fuel tank needed • Lower driving range • Net energy loss • Much higher cost • Corn supply limited • May compete with growing food on cropland • Higher NO emissions • Corrosive • Hard to start in cold weather (Left): © Carolina K. Smith MD/Shutterstock; ( Right): © Tanja Mijatov /Shutterstock 36 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s G eothermal E nergy ? ▪ Geothermal heat pumps ▪ Geothermal exchange ▪ Dry and wet steam ▪ Hot water ▪ Molten rock (magma) ▪ Hot dry-rock zones and warm-rock reservoirs Current Usage 22 countries (mostly developing nations) Only 1% of global electricity 37 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Geothermal Energy: Trade-offs Trade –Off, Ethanol Fuel: General advantages and disadvantages of using ethanol as a vehicle fuel compared to gasoline. Pick the single advantage and single disadvantage that you think are the most important . Advantages • High octane • Some reduction in CO2 emissions • Reduced CO emissions • Can be sold as gasohol • Potentially renewable Disadvantages • Large fuel tank needed • Lower driving range • Net energy loss • Much higher cost • Corn supply limited • May compete with growing food on cropland • Higher NO emissions • Corrosive • Hard to start in cold weather (Left): © aurin /Getty Images ; ( Right): © dmitry_islentev /Shutterstock 38 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hydrogen : Can Hydrogen Replace Oil? Hydrogen isn’t a primary energy resource; it is a fuel we produce to store and use energy . Trade –Offs, Hydrogen: Advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles and for providing heat and electricity. Pick the single advantage and the single disadvantage that you think are the most important. Advantages • Can be produced from plentiful water • Low environmental impact • Renewable if produced from renewable energy resources • No CO2 emissions if produced from water • Good substitute for oil • Competitive price if environmental and social costs are included in cost comparisons • Easier to store than electricity • Safer than gasoline and natural gas • Nontoxic • High efficiency (45–65%) in fuel cells Disadvantages • Not found in ecosphere • Energy is needed to produce fuel • Negative net energy (energy loss) • CO2 emissions if produced from carbon-containing compounds • Nonrenewable if generated by fossil fuels or nuclear power • High costs (but may eventually come down) • Will take 25–50 years to phase in • Short driving range for current fuel cell cars • No fuel distribution system in place • Excessive H2 leaks may deplete ozone . (Left): © Brooks Kraft/Corbis ; ( Right): Courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 39 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hydrogen Fuel Production ▪ Hydrogen gas does not generally occur in nature . – It is chemically locked up in water or hydrocarbons . ▪ Current technology for generating H 2 – Electrolysis from water • Uses large amounts of electricity (usually from fossil fuels) – Cracking hydrocarbons • Generates more CO 2 than simply burning the fossil fuels ▪ Future alternative methods for H 2 production – H 2-producing algae – Direct from water using sunlight and chemical catalysts 40 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hydrogen Storage We don’t yet know how best to store H 2 , unlike current fuels. ▪ Compressed gas – Low energy density + safety concerns ▪ Liquid hydrogen – Low temperature required uses money and energy 41 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hydrogen Storage continued ▪ Metal hydrides – Chemically bound to metal compounds ▪ Adsorption on carbon – Activated charcoal or graphite ▪ Trapping in nanostructured molecules – Clathrate hydrates or glass microspheres ▪ All of these illustrate a problem: H ydrogen costs energy to make AND to store . 42 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s M icropower ? Decentralization Dispersed, small-scale generation Smart metering for transmission and distribution 43 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Advantages of Micropower • Small modular units • Fast factory production • Fast installation (hours to days) • Can add or remove modules as needed • High e nergy e fficiency (60%-80%) • Low or no CO 2 emissions • Low air pollution emissions 44 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. More Advantages of Micropower • Reliable • Easy to repair • Much less vulnerable to power outages • Increase national security by dispersal of targets • Useful anywhere • Especially useful in rural areas in developing countries with no power • Can use locally available renewable energy resources • Easily financed (costs included in mortgage and commercial load) 45 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Decentralized Micropower 46 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How C an W e D evelop a M ore S ustainable E nergy F uture ? Improve Energy Efficiency • Increase fuel-efficiency standards for vehicles, buildings, and appliances. • Mandate government purchases of efficient vehicles and other devices. • Provide large tax credits for buying efficient cars, houses, and appliances. • Offer large tax credits for investments in energy efficiency. • Encourage independent power producers. • Reward utilities for reducing demand for electricity. • Greatly increase energy efficiency research and development . More Renewable Energy • Increase renewable energy to 20% by 2020 and 50% by 2050. • Provide large subsidies and tax credits for renewable energy. • Use full-cost accounting and life-cycle cost for comparing all energy alternatives. • Encourage government purchase of renewable energy devices. • Greatly increase renewable energy research and development . Reduce Pollution and Health Risk • Cut coal use 50% by 2020. • Phase out coal subsidies. • Levy taxes on coal and oil use. • Phase out nuclear power or put it on hold until 2020. • Phase out nuclear power subsidies . 47 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Conclusion ▪ Many potential sources of renewable energy . ▪ All require investment, both financially and conceptually . ▪ We need to rethink our relationship with energy, its generation , and its distribution . 48




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