Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 5 and week 6 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assignment just require a good reading of the slides and then you will be eligible  to answer question. Answers should be relating to the material from the slides. Please find below Assignment 3. This assignment is based on reading materials assigned for weeks 5-6 (pest management, urbanization, sustainable Winnipeg.Once you have finished answering the questions, rename the file following this convention:Assignment 3 [your name] [your ID].For example, if your name was Tyler Miller and ID was 3055648, you would name the file as:Assignment 3 Tyler Miller 3055648 Please upload files in MS Word compatible formats only (*.docx, *.rtf). DO NOT submit in any other format. DO NOT send scanned images or insert them into the document. Also, if you miss the deadline, a 10% of the total points per day penalty will be applied.
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 5 and week 6 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
Assignment 3 (Total marks: 60) Name (full name): Student ID: Failure to write full name and ID will result in a 2% penalty on the marks obtained. Part A: Part B: Part C: Total: Answer the questions below. For multiple choice questions, please make the chosen answer (the entire sentence) BOLD or underlined. Part A: Pest management 1. The synthetic chemicals designed to control pest populations should more appropriately be called: Herbicides Fungicides Pesticides Biocides 2. Which Canadian agency regulate all pesticides manufactured, imported, sold, or used in Canada? Environment Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Health Canada None of the above 3. Due to repeated exposure to the same chemicals, over time, how many species of of malaria-carrying mosquitoes developed genetic resistance to DDT? 15 species or less 20 to 30 species 40 to 45 species 50 or more species 4. What species of spider can keep house clear of cockroaches? Wolf spider Banana spider Crab spider All of the above 5. How many children die each year in North America due to unsafe storage of pesticides? About 10 About 20 About 30 None of the above 6. Approximately, what percent of the world’s potential human food supply is lost to pests before harvest? 27% 33% 40% None of the above 7. Which law of nature dictates that predatory insects are likely to be highly effective in controlling prey insect populations? The law of natural selection Survival of the fittest Second Law of thermodynamics None of the above 8. Since when farmers started to use chemicals extracted from nature to control or kill pests? Sixteenth century Nineteenth century Twentieth century None of the above 9. A group of chemicals that can make a pesticide water soluble and highly toxic to insects but relatively harmless to mammals and birds is known as: Atrazine Malathion Pyrethrins None of the above 10. Since mid-20th century, how many species of weeds have developed genetic resistance to one or more pesticides? 1000 500 300 200 11. DDT created a positive feedback loop in terms of the amount of pesticide use because: It was ineffective in controlling pests It killed off insect predators It caused bio-magnification Both (b) and (c) 12. What were the first batch of POPs that the global community agreed to control, reduce, phase and destroy any remaining stockpiles via the Stockholm Convention called? 13. Which Canadian municipality was the first to ban use of pesticides for cosmetic purposes on lawn? Prince George Hudson Sherbrook Halifax 14. What percent of the potential pest species population is controlled by natural enemies (predators, parasites, and disease organisms)? about 98% About 75% About 56% None of the above 15. Insects produce many products that are consumed/used by humans, such as: Honey Silk Royal jelly All of the above 16. The overall aim of integrated pest management is to: Eradicate pest population Use moderate level of synthetic pesticides Reduce crop loss to an economically acceptable level All of the above 17. By late middle ages, which of the following natural substances were used by farmers for pest control? Arsenic Lead Mercury All of the above 18. What method can be used to reduce unnecessary or over spraying of pesticides? 19. In which sector of agriculture has biological pest control been most successful? 20. What might work to make IPM principles more effective and lower the reliance on chemical pesticides? Set up government-funded pilot projects Create a special crop insurance for farmers willing to switch to IPM Remove subsidies that favor pesticides All of the above Part B: Urbanization and sustainable cities (Chapter 25 and Sustainable Winnipeg) [30] 1. By 2050, approximately what proportion of the global population are expected to live in urban areas [1]? One third One half Two thirds Three quarters 2. Why is Curitiba, Brazil an ecocity? [1] Cars are allowed downtown only during certain hours. The city puts a focus on mass transit. It is expensive to live there. The city limits the number of people allowed to live there. 3. Mention one push factors contributing to the growth of urban areas through migration (from rural to urban areas): [1] 4. What is a mega city? [1] 5. By what percentage did the urban population increase between 1850 and 2014 due to the global urban revolution? [1] It increased from 2% in 1850 to 54% It increased from 10% in 1850 to 65% It increased from 20% in 1850 to 50% It increased from 40% in 1850 to 65% 6. Which statement best characterizes the squatter settlement populations of most cities in developing countries? [1] They are declining in number. They have lower incomes than do the rural poor. They are people who don’t pay taxes and live off social welfare. They consist of people living in makeshift shelters. 7. What motivates people who migrate to cities? [1] Access to education, innovation, and culture Greater employment opportunity Better healthcare All of the above 8. Which one of the policies might have contributed to urban sprawl? [1] Availability of ample land Zoning laws requiring separation of residential and business districts Tax laws encouraging home ownership All of the above 9. Which city experiences “fecal snow”? [1] a. Calcutta b. Mexico City c. Sao Paulo d. Rio de Janeiro 10. Urban sprawl causes many undesirable impacts, including: [1] Habitat fragmentation Increased flooding Increased number deaths from accidents All of the above 11. What is the most recent shift seen in North American internal human populations? [1] a shift from agricultural areas to cities a shift from north and east to south and west a shift from urban areas to rural areas all of the above 12. Which statement most accurately represents the use of resources by urban populations around the world? [1] Urban populations occupy about 2% of the planet’s area and consume 75% of the resources Urban populations occupy about 8% of the planet’s area and consume 70% of the resources. Urban populations occupy about 10% of the planet’s area and consume 88% of the resources. Urban populations occupy about 20% of the planet’s area and consume 33% of the resources. 13. Which of the following is an environmental benefit of urbanization? [1] readily available workforce thriving cultural landscape economically feasible recycling all of the above 14. Prolonged exposure to which level of noise can cause permanent hearing loss? [1] > 100 decibels > 65 decibels > 75 decibels > 85 decibels 15. How much louder is a sound registering 50 dbA compared to one registering 30 dbA? [1] 1.67 times louder 20 times louder 100 times louder 1000 times louder 16. The City of Toronto introduced the ‘lights-out’ program from 11 pm to dawn to: [1] Save energy consumption and reduce emission of greenhouse gases To help reduce interference with the airplane navigation systems To reduce the number of birds colliding with tall buildings It encourages nightly zooplankton feeding 17. Globally, what percentage of travel occurs by foot, bicycle, motor scooter, and bus? [1] 45% 80% 70% 90% 18. What percentage of all urban transportation in Canada and the US is undertaken by passenger vehicles? [1] 98% 88% 78% 68% 19. In which country, the right to buy a car is auctioned to the highest bidder and the revenue is reinvested to providing a reliable mass transit system? [1] Japan Denmark China Singapore 20. What is the term for a scenario in which the construction of roads leads to the sale of more cars, which in turn leads to the construction of even more roads? [1] antagonistic interaction positive feedback loop negative feedback loop None of the above 21. What is the source of 90% of the funds used to support government services (schools, roads, policing, fire protection, welfare, etc.)? [1] income tax sales tax fees and licenses property tax 22. What can impede ecologically sound development? [1] establishing land trusts taxing land on the basis of the economically highest potential use requiring environmental impact analysis for private projects implementing conservation easements 23. What of the following measures can help deal with uncontrolled growth and sprawl? [1] discouraging mixed use zoning taxing buildings rather than land promoting high-density clusters issuing free building permits 24. ‘Smart growth’ strategies are adopted to: [1] reduce urban sprawls reduce carbon emissions and pollution from cars protect ecologically sensitive areas all of the above 25. The most effective ways to slow down and control urban sprawl include: [1] Revitalize neighborhoods and downtown areas Set growth boundaries around cities Preserve open spaces outside urban areas All of the above 26. Migration of people and businesses from urban centres to rural areas in some big cities is: [1] Causing budget crunch Reinvigorating family farming Reducing urban poverty All of the above 27. What is one means of creating urban open space? [1] Encouraging clusters and vertical growth Instituting greenbelts Improving public transport All of the above 28. Benefits provided by vegetation in urban areas include: [1] a. providing habitat for wildlife b. cooling air temperature c. filtering pollutants d. all of the above 29. Given an example of ‘reconciliation ecology’ from your textbook. [1] 30. What is the time horizon used for “Sustainable Winnipeg?” [1] PART 3: Short questions [10] 1. Why do some people say that plants and insects have been in an “arms race” for millions of years? [2] 2. A book published in the second-half of the 20th century on the use and impacts of synthetic pesticides is widely credited for the birth of grass-root environmental movement in the west. Based on online research, answer the following: [1+2=3] (a) Who was the author of the book and what was the title? (b). Mention four key points made in the book. 3. Mention one action (per issue) that can help deal with the following issues in urban areas: [0.5×4=2] Air pollution: Water pollution: Solid waste: Loss of habitat: 4. What is the traditional way of showing the inter-linkages between economy, society and the environment (show in a diagram)? How did the City of Winnipeg envision this relationship in their strategy document (show in a diagram)? Which model do you endorse and why? [3]
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 5 and week 6 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 23 Pest Management Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Key Concepts ▪ Types and uses of pesticides ▪ Advantages and disadvantages of modern pesticides ▪ Regulation of pesticides ▪ Alternatives to conventional pesticides 2 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How D oes N ature K eep P est P opulations U nder C ontrol ? ▪ Pest – An organism that interferes with human activity – Situation- and opinion- dependent definition ▪ Natural C ontrols – Predators, parasites, disease 3 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What A re Pesticides? ▪ Chemicals designed to kill pest organisms – Insecticides – Herbicides – Fungicides – Rodenticide ▪ Biocide : Kills species other than target ▪ Plants have been making their own pesticides for millennia . 4 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. First – G eneration Pesticides ▪ Sul ph ur , lead, arsenic, mercury – Nondegradable inorganic toxins ▪ Plant extracts – F o r example, pyrethrum , rotenone 5 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Second – G eneration Pesticides ▪ Primarily synthetic organic compounds ▪ Persistence varies from days to years ▪ Some common types – Chlorinated hydrocarbons – Organophosphates – Carbamates – Botanicals – Microbotanicals 6 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. DDT: The F irst Second – G eneration P esticide ▪ Broad spectrum pesticide ▪ Persistent : Not readily degraded ▪ Water-insoluble, so retained on crops ▪ Fat-soluble, causing bioaccumulation ▪ Genetic resistance in insects 7 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. ▪ Thinned eggs in peregrine falcons ▪ Killed beneficial insects ▪ Banned in North America in 1972 ▪ Still used in countries to combat malaria 8 DDT: The F irst Second – G eneration P esticide Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. The Case For Pesticides ▪ Save human lives from pest-transmitted disease ▪ Increase food supplies ▪ Increase profits for farmers ▪ Work faster and better than alternatives ▪ Health risks low vs. benefits with proper use ▪ Newer pesticides becoming safer, more effective 9 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s the I deal P esticide ? ▪ Affects only target pests ▪ Does n ot allow pests to evolve immunity ▪ Rapid breakdown to harmless byproducts after use ▪ Affordable and cost-effective 10 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. The Case Against Pesticides : What Is the M ajor P roblem W ith U sing P esticides ? ▪ Promotes evolution of genetic resistance by selecting members of population with genetic immunity ▪ Especially a concern for species that reproduce quickly 11 US Department of Agriculture Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. ▪ Wipe out natural predators – Create new pest species – Increase populations of existing pests ▪ Migrate into the natural environment ▪ Harm to other wildlife or human health The Case Against Pesticides: What Are Other Problems With Using Pesticides? 12 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How S uccessful H ave P esticides B een in R educing C rop L oss ? ▪ Six percent more of the U.S . food supply is lost to pests today than in the 1940s . ▪ Losses due to insects have doubled since 1942 despite 10x more insecticides . ▪ For every $1 spent on pesticides, there is $ 5–$10 in environmental damages . ▪ Pesticide use can be reduced without affecting yield . 13 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How A re P esticides R egulated in Canada? ▪ Federal – 2006 Pest Control Products Act (PCPA) – Regulates manufacture, import, sale, or use ▪ Provincial – Use, storage, and disposal regulations ▪ Municipal – Residential- and cosmetic-use restrictions in 75 municipalities (2006) 14 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What S hould B e the P rimary G oal of P est C ontrol ? ▪ Reduction not eradication ▪ Economic T hreshold – Point when losses due to pests outweigh cost of pesticide use – Preferred over insurance threshold or cosmetic spraying 15 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Alternatives to Conventional Chemical Pesticides ▪ Adjusting cultivation practices – Crop rotation – Companion planting ▪ Genetic engineering for pest resistance ▪ Biological pest control ▪ Insect birth control, pheromones, hormones ▪ Hot water or insecticidal soaps 16 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Biological Pest Control ▪ Spider populations – Kill more insects worldwide than combined insecticides – Can be encouraged when farmers build hibernation huts ▪ Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) – Occurs naturally in soil, plants, caterpillars – Concentrates the toxins from Bt into a spray • Import natural predators, parasites, diseases specific to the pest 17 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hormones and the Insect Life Cycle ▪ Normal growth and development requires juvenile hormones ( JH ) and moulting hormones (MH ). ▪ Synthetic hormones disrupt this cycle when applied at the correct time . 18 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Hormones and the Insect Life Cycle Normal hornworm Hornworm treated to prevent production of MH 19 Agricultural Research Services/USDA Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ▪ Ecological system approach ▪ Reduce pest populations to economic threshold ▪ Field monitoring of pest populations ▪ Preferential use of biological agents before synthetic 20 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. IPM Examples Spruce budworm control – Natural predators – Biological agents (e.g ., Bt) – Selective harvesting Gypsy moth control – Natural predators – Pheromones – Biological agents – Synthetic insecticides Fig. 23-10 Fig. 23-11 21 Dion Manastyrski © BC Ministry of Forests © Neil Hardwick/Alamy Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Spotlight : Mountain Pine Beetle s ▪ Removal of infested trees ▪ Trapping using pheromone mimics ▪ Signalling trees as not-worth-invading using beetle pheromone mimics ▪ Controlled burn of badly infested patches ▪ Treat trees with chitosan, an ecofriendly biopesticide ▪ Limited spraying with insecticides. 22 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Why I s IPM N ot M ore W idely u U sed ? ▪ Requires expert knowledge ▪ Slower than conventional pesticides ▪ Method development is site-specific ▪ Initial costs may be high . ▪ Gov ernment subsidies favour conventional pesticides . 23 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Strategies for IPM P romotion ▪ Tax pesticides to fund IPM research ▪ Government-funded demonstration projects ▪ Send experts onto farms for dialogue ▪ Special crop insurance for IPM ▪ Ecologo labelling ▪ Remove subsidies that favour conventional pesticides 24 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Conclusion ▪ Pests are part of an ecosystem . ▪ Controlling them means manipulating ecosystems, with unintended consequences . ▪ Insecticides offer a limited solution . ▪ IPM strategies may yield better results . 25
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 5 and week 6 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 25 Sustainable Cities Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Key Concepts • Cause and control of urban growth • Major resource and environmental problems in urban areas • Effects of transportation systems in urban growth • Making cities more sustainable and livable 2 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. U rbanization and Urban Growth • Currently , 54% of people live on 2% of the world’s land area . • Canada’s biggest city (Toronto) is relatively small . National Geophysical Data Center/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and United Nations. 3 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What C auses U rban G rowth ? • Natural growth • Immigration Rural PUSH • Poverty • Lack of agricultural jobs or land • Famine • War PULL • Employment • Food and housing • Entertainment • Freedom from racial, religious, political conflict Urban ▪ Can be influenced by government policies 4 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Worldwide Patterns of U rbanization and U rban G rowth • Increased proportion of population in urban areas • From 2 % to 54% from 1850 to 2014 • Increased number of large cities • 2014 : 28 megacities (>10 million people) • Rapidly increasing urbanization in developing nations • Slower urban growth in already heavily urbanized developed nations • Poverty becoming increasingly urbanized 5 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Five Major Trends 1. The proportion of the global population living in urban areas is increasing . 2. The number of large cities is mushrooming . 3. Urbanization and urban populations are increasing rapidly in developing countries . 4. Urban growth is slower in developed countries . 5. Poverty is becoming urbanized in developing countries . 6 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Urbanized I s Canada? Phases of U rban M igration 1. From rural areas to large central cities 2. From city centres to suburbs or smaller cities 3. From East to West 4. From urban back to rural (post-1990) 7 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s Urban Sprawl? Growth of low-density development at the periphery Canadian Geographic, May/June 2006. • Ample available land • Government-facilitated housing • Automobile accessibilty • Cheap gas + highways • Tax law favours home ownership • Zoning laws • Poor urban planning due to political jurisdiction issues 8 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What A re S ome of the E ffects of U rban S prawl ? • Land and Biodiversity • Loss of cropland, forest, grassland; fragmentation of wildlife habitat; increased soil erosion • Human Health and Aesthetics • Contaminated drinking water, noise pollution, traffic congestion • Water • Contamination; increased groundwater use; increased flooding; lower natural sewage treatment 9 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. • Energy, Air , and Climate • Increased energy use, waste, air pollution, greenhouse emissions • Economic Effects • Higher taxes; higher unemployment; decline in downtown business districts 10 What A re S ome of the E ffects of U rban S prawl? Continued Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Urban Areas: Inputs v ersus Outputs Urban areas are not self-sustaining systems . Inputs Energy Food Water Raw materials Manufactured goods Money Information 11 Outputs Solid wastes Waste heat Air pollutants Water pollutants Greenhouse gases Manufactured goods Noise Wealth Ideas Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Noise Pollution 12 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Light Pollution • Stargazing • Astronomical research • Changing animal migration • Aquatic ecosystems, algae and water quality Muskoka Heritage Foundation 13 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study: Urban Poor in Developing Countries • Slums • Illegal settlements • Squatter settlements • Shantytowns • Crowding • Absence of sanitation and limited services • Poverty and unemployment • Better access to services and community than rural 14 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Transportation and Urban Development • Land availability • Determines growth pattern of a city • Vertical or horizontal • Determines viable transportation options • Individual or mass transit Compact cities • Hong Kong, Tokyo Dispersed cities • in Canada, the United States 15 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s the R ole of M otor V ehicles in Canada? In North America, • 5% of world population = 33% of all cars Cars are used for • 98% of urban transportation • 90% of commuting and • 75% of trips are less than 1.6 km from home • 75% of commuting cars are single-occupant 16 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Motor Vehicles? Advantages • Personal mobility • Convenience • Job creation • Auto industry • Roads, services, etc . Disadvantages • Kill or injure people • Air pollution • Promote urban sprawl • Congestion • Economic costs 17 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Can We Reduce Automobile Use? Strategies • Taxation • Tolls • Car-free zones • Car-sharing networks • Telecommuting • Strategies Challenges • Political opposition • Public • Auto industry • Absence of alternative transit infrastructure 18 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Bicycles: Trade-offs Advantages • Affordable • Produce no pollution • Quiet • Require little parking space • Easy to manoeuvre in traffic • Take few resources to make • Very energy efficient • Provide exercise Disadvantages • Little protection in an accident • Do not protect riders from bad weather • Not practical for trips longer than 8 kilometres (5 miles) • Can be tiring (except for electric bicycles) • Lack of secure bike parking 19 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Motor Scooters: Trade-offs Advantages • Affordable • Produce less air pollution than cars • Require little parking space • Easy to manoeuvre in traffic • Electric scooters are quiet and produce little pollution Disadvantages • Little protection in an accident • Does not protect drivers from bad weather • Gasoline engines are noisy • Gasoline engines emit large quantities of air pollutants 20 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Mass Transit Rail: Trade-offs Advantages • More energy efficient than cars • Produces less air pollution than cars • Requires less land than roads and parking areas for cars • Causes fewer / injuries and deaths than cars • Reduces car congestion in cities Disadvantages Expensive to build and maintain Cost effective only along a densely populated narrow corridor Commits riders to transportation, schedules Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents 21 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Buses: Trade-offs Advantages • More flexible than rail system • Can be rerouted as needed • Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system • Can greatly reduce car use and pollution Disadvantages Can lose money because they need low fares to attract riders Often get caught in traffic unless operating in express lanes Commits riders to transportation schedules Noisy 22 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Rapid Rail: Trade-offs Advantages • Can reduce travel by car or plane • Ideal for trips of 200-1000 kilometres ( 120-620 miles) • Much more energy efficient per rider over the same distance than a car or plane Disadvantages • Expensive to run and maintain • Must operate along heavily used routes to be profitable • Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents 23 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Conventional Land-Use Planning • Prioritizes growth and development • Typically poorly controlled expansion • Reliance on property taxes encourages expansion 24 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Using Zoning to Control Land Use Advantages • Can be used to control growth • Protect areas from some types of development For example, zone for high-density development along mass transit corridor Disadvantages • Developers exert considerable influence • Favours high-priced developments over environmental/social concerns • Disfavours innovation due to strict zoning 25 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Smart Growth Tools: Solutions Figure 25-15 Solutions Smart Growth Tools Smart growth or new urbanism tools used to prevent and control growth and sprawl Limits and regulations ● Limit building permits. ● Set urban growth boundaries. ● Establish greenbelts around cities. ● Allow for public review of new developments. Zoning Limits and regulations ● Limit building permits. ● Set urban growth boundaries. ● Establish greenbelts around cities. ● Allow for public review of new developments. Planning ● Ecological land-use planning ● Environmental impact analysis ● Integrated regional planning ● Provincial and national planning Protection ● Preserve existing open space. ● Buy new open space. ● Buy development rights that prohibit certain types of development on land parcels. Taxes ● Tax land, not buildings.. ● Tax land based on value of actual use (such as forest and agriculture), instead of highest value as developed land. Tax breaks ● For owners agreeing legally to not allow certain types of development (conservation easements) ● For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields) Revitalization and new growth ● Revitalize existing towns and cities. ● Build well-planned new towns and villages within cities. © teekid /Getty Images © Teddy Leung/ Shutterstock © Alastair Wallace/ Shutterstock 26 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Preservation of Urban Open Spaces: Ottawa Canadian Geographic, May/June 2006 27 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Preservation of Urban Open Spaces: Vancouver and Toronto 28 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Different Visions of Neighbourhood Development 29 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Making Urban Areas More Livable and Sustainable Ecocity / Green C ity • Preventing pollution and reducing waste • Efficient use of energy and matter • Recycle and reuse > 60% of solid waste • Solar and other renewable resources • Protect biodiversity by land preservation • Urban gardens and farm markets • Green design of buildings 30 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Spotlight: Vancouver – A Showcase for Urban Renewal • Vertical neighbourhoods • Attracting people to downtown core to both live and work • Sustainable community on False Creek • Features safe travel routes: A downtown safe for children © Roy LANGSTAFF/ Alamy Stock Photo 31 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Urban Rooftop Gardens • Cover roof with vegetation • Advantages: • Insulation • Lower summer temperatures • Improve water quality • Carbon sink • Add natural habitat • Local food • Beauty © Alison Hancock/Shutterstock 32 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Conclusion • Urbanization has advantages and disadvantages, both ecologically and economically . • Transportation is a major challenge . • Creative urbanization can create more sustainable cities . 33
Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 5 and week 6 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi
A SuStAinAble Winnipeg An Direcfion Sfrafegb Core DrAfting teAm Patti Regan, Ian Hall ourWinnipeg initiAtive teAm Michelle Richard ( OurWinnipeg Initiative Coordinator), Ayoka Anderson, Devin Clark, Ian Hall, Gary Holmes, Justin Lee, Jeff Pratte, Becky Raddatz, Michael Robinson, Andrew Ross, Mamadou Lamine Sane, Brett Shenback, Rebecca Van Beveren Chief ADminiS trAtive offiCer Glen Laubenstein Deputy Chief ADminiS trAtive offiCer Phil Sheegl Community ServiCeS Dep Artment Clive Wightman, Diane Banash, Karen Beck, Kelly Goldstrand, Dan Prokopchuk plAnning, property AnD Development Dep Artment Deepak Joshi, Donna Beaton, Susanne Dewey-Povoledo, Dianne Himbeault, John Kiernan, Judy Redmond, Pam Sveinson publiC Work S DepArtment Brad Sacher, Dave Domke, Luis Escobar, Doug Hurl, Kevin Nixon W Ater AnD W ASte Dep Artment Barry MacBride, Darryl Drohomerski, Frank Mazur, Mike Shkolny Winnipeg poliCe ServiCe Chief Keith McCaskill, Deputy Chief Shelley M. Hart, Winnipeg trAnSit Dave Wardrop, Bill Menzies, Bjorn Radstrom publiC ServiCe ContributorS The A Sustainabile Winnipeg Direction Strategy includes contributions from across the Public Service, including: A SuStAinAble Winnipeg A Sustainable Winnipeg is one of four Direction Strategies supporting OurWinnipeg. It is based solidly on the voices of Winnipeggers, commencing with the visions shared by participants at the Mayor’s Symposium on Sustainability , held April 25, 2009, and augmented by the input received through the comprehensive SpeakUpWinnipeg citizen involvement process. A Sustainable Winnipeg is an integrated community sustainability strategy with a 25-year time horizon. It is built on solid sustainability principles supporting the three dimensions that comprise sustainability – economic, environmental and social. The Strategy seeks to shape today’s decisions and actions to set a direction that will work in times of growth and change with the goal of creating the community we want for our children and grandchildren. The Strategy sets forth five Key Directions that mobilize our commitment to a sustainable city, and position the City of Winnipeg to lead by example in this journey. It is a framework for the creation of sustainability indicators for all components of OurWinnipeg and accompanying Direction Strategies, to track progress towards achieving Winnipeg’s vision for a sustainable community: “Living and Caring Because We Plan on Staying”. © 2011, The Ci Ty of Winnipeg. fll Righ Ts Rese Rbed. The prepara Tion of This sus Tainable communi Ty plan was carrief ou T wi Th assis Tance from The Green municipal f unf, a funf financef by The Governmen T of canafa anf afminis Teref by The fefera Tion of canafian municipali Tiesb n oTwi Ths Tanfin G T his suppor T, T he views expressef are The personal views of The au Thors, anf The fefera Tion of c anafian municipali Ties anf The Governmen T of canafa accep T no responsibili Ty for Themb livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 1 tAble of Content S seCTion pfge seCTion pfge 01 infroducfion 02 02 Whaf is Susfainabilifb? 04 03 ourWinnipeg’s Susfainabilifb p rinciples 08 04 t he opporfunifb for Change 10 05 t he foundafion: l eading bb example 16 06 t rack p rogress 20 06–1 A f ramework for Susfainabilifb measuremenf 22 07 infegrafe Susfainabilifb info infernal Decision-making 2608 Creafe and invesf in Susfainabilifb t ools 28 08–1 Complefe Communifies 29 08–1a t ools for fhe implemenfafion of Susfainable Complefe Communifies 29 08–2 Susfainable Wafer and Wasfe 32 08–2a t ools Supporfing fhe implemenfafion of Suscfainable Wafer and Wasfe infrasfrucfure 32 08–3 Susfainable t ransporfafion 34 08–3a t ools fo Supporf fhe i mplemenfafion of a Susfainable t ransporfafion Sbsfem 34 09 Confinue fo r especf and value our nafural and builf environmenf 36 10 f irsf Sfeps 42 glossarb 44 livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 2 01 introDuC tion a sustainable w innipeg > introduction Society is in the midst of a fundamental shift. People from all walks of life realize that the way we currently live cannot be maintained without posing a significant challenge to quality of life for those who come after us. The City of Winnipeg is committed to taking a lead role in creating a sustainable community. Stepping to WArDS A SuS tAinAble Winnipeg A Sustainable Winnipeg is an integrated community sustainability strategy with a 25-year time horizon. It is built on solid sustainability principles and citizens at the Mayor’s Symposium on a Sustainable Winnipeg. Its key directions align with the City of Winnipeg’s vision for a sustainable community: “Living and Caring Because We Plan on Staying.” A Sustainable Winnipeg is one of four Direction Strategies, together with Complete Communities , Sustainable Transportation and Sustainable Water and Waste, created to support OurWinnipeg, Winnipeg’s municipal development plan for 2010- 2035. All four Direction Strategies, together with OurWinnipeg itself, have been created with sustainability as their overarching framework— all directions, strategies and actions have been constructed on this principle. Every aspect of this plan has been crafted by carefully considering economic, environmental and social sustainability in recognition of their interconnected nature. While they do not appear as specific categories within OurWinnipeg , this is because sustainable thinking has been fully integrated with and embedded in all the action planning and the implementation process. ho W to uSe thiS DoCument A Sustainable Winnipeg contains key directions and actions that mobilize our commitment to creating a sustainable city. It also contains a framework for the development of sustainability indicators for all components of OurWinnipeg and its accompanying Strategy Directions. These not only offer Winnipeggers opportunity today, they also ensure opportunity for future generations. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 3 a sustainable w innipeg > introduction The document organizes directions and strategies into five priority areas: > Lead by example to build the foundation for A Sustainable Winnipeg > Track progress > Integrate sustainability into decision-making for City services and operations > Create and invest in sustainability tools > Continue to respect and value our natural and built environment Each priority begins with an introduction and a summary of what we learned through SpeakUpWinnipeg and is followed by directions and enabling strategies for moving forward. Directions and enabling strategies from OurWinnipeg and the other three Direction Strategies that explicitly incorporate aspects of sustainability have been woven into the five sections, reflecting and reinforcing their interconnectedness. This has been done to provide a comprehensive overview, in a single document, of the multitude of sustainability strategies involved. To facilitate access to more detailed information, references are provided for directions and strategies drawn from the other documents in the OurWinnipeg suite. The framework for tracking Winnipeg’s progress on its sustainability journey is outlined in Section 06 Track Progress . A comprehensive set of sustainability indicators will be established to support regular checks on where we are and how far we have to go. The measurement framework will be a new sustainability planning tool for Winnipeg. The City of Winnipeg has used a variety of measurement methodologies in the past but has not used a broad-scale approach that is formally integrated into the decision making process. the muniCip Al role There are areas within other governments’ mandates, such as housing and poverty, which are critical to the overall well-being of the city. Many of these areas are not within the City of Winnipeg’s mandate. As a result, the City is not in a position to take a leadership role in these areas, nor does the service delivery requirement for them reside within the municipal mandate. Because of their importance OurWinnipeg considers and recognizing the City’s role as a contributor and partner to other levels of government or to community organizations. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 4 figure 02a 02 WhA t iS SuStAinAbility? a sustainable w innipeg > introduction Sustainability is an issue for all communities, from small rural towns, to large metropolitan areas. On April 25th, 2009, the Mayor and the Council committed to creating a sustainable Winnipeg. Perhaps the most commonly referenced definition for sustainability comes from the report entitled “Our Common Future” from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, which defines sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising a view of community as three separate and unrelated parts: an economic part, a social part and an environmental partb A C ommunity AS three Sep ArAte pArt S eC onomy environment SoCiety In their Policy Statement on Environment and Sustainable Development , the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) states: Sustainable development means pursuing economic prosperity, fiscal responsibility, environmental quality, cultural enrichment and social equity, all at once. For municipalities, it means making financially sustainable strategic decisions and implementing operational changes that support broader social, economic, cultural and environmental objectives. the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm Sustainability is related to the quality of life in a community—the economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community provide a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 5 a sustainable w innipeg > introduction When society, economy and environment are viewed as separate and unrelated parts of a community, the community’s problems are also viewed as isolated issues, as in figure 02a. Economic development councils try to create more jobs. Social needs are addressed by health care services and housing authorities. Environmental agencies try to prevent and correct pollution problems. This piecemeal approach can have unintended side- effects: Solutions to one problem can make another problem worse. Creating affordable housing is a good thing, but when that housing is built in areas far from workplaces, the result is increased traffic and the pollution that can come with it. Piecemeal solutions tend to create opposing groups. How often have you heard the argument ‘If the environmentalists win, the economy will suffer,’ and its opposing view ‘If business has its way, the environment will be destroyed.’ Piecemeal solutions tend to focus on short-term benefits without monitoring long-term results. Rather than a piecemeal approach, we need to view the community in ways that take into account the interconnection between the economy, the environment and society. A better picture of a sustainable community is the circles within circles shown in figure 02b. As this figure illustrates, the economy exists entirely within society, because all parts of the human economy require interaction among people. However, society is much more than the economy. Friends and families, music and art, religion and ethics are important elements of society but are not primarily based on the exchange of goods and services. Society in turn, exists entirely within the environment. Our basic requirements— air, food and water— come from the environment, as do the energy and raw materials for housing, transportation and the products we depend on. a view of community as three concentric circles: the economy exists within society, and both the economy and society exist within the environmentb An interConne CteD C ommunity eC onomy environment SoCiety figure 02b livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 6 02 WhfT is sus TfinfbiliTy? a sustainable winnipeg > introduction Finally, the environment surrounds society. At an earlier point in human history, the environment largely determined the shape of society. Today the opposite is true: human activity is reshaping the environment at an ever-increasing rate. The parts of the environment unaffected by human activity are getting smaller all the time. However, because people need food, water and air to survive, society can never be larger than the environment. Sustainability requires managing all households— individual, community, national and global—in ways that ensure that our economy and society can continue to exist without destroying the natural environment on which we all depend. Sustainable communities acknowledge that there are limits to the natural, social and built systems upon which we depend. Key questions asked in a sustainable community include whether we are using a particular resource faster than it can be renewed and whether or not we are enhancing the social and human capital upon which our community depends. WinnipeggerS WAnt SuS tAinAbility Like in other cities, the people of Winnipeg are looking to create the community we want for our children and grandchildren. To do this well, today’s decisions and actions need to set a direction that will work both in periods of decline and in periods of growth. This means answering two core questions: > How can we balance economic benefits and risks with potential consequences for our environment, our society and our culture? > How can we foster our natural environment while developing our economy? Through SpeakUpWinnipeg , we’ve learned that Winnipeggers want their municipal government to be a leader, championing choices and opportunities to live in a sustainable way. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 7 02 WhfT is sus TfinfbiliTy? a sustainable winnipeg > introduction Citizens have told us they want a future which includes opportunities for people of all ages, abilities and walks of life to live, work and play in the same community. It includes a sustainable transportation system that connects Winnipeg’s communities. In our sustainable city, tree-lined streets and trails and pathways are ribbons of green or white that link neighbourhoods and a diverse system of parks, open spaces and natural areas. Vibrant and safe neighbourhoods, including the Downtown, offer clean, animated streets and walkways, quality entertainment and shopping and thriving residential communities. Photo: Economic Development Winnipeg livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 8 03 ourWinnipeg’ S SuStAinAbility prinCipleS a sustainable w innipeg > ourwinnipeg’s sustainability p rinciples Drawing on contributions from thousands of SpeakUpWinnipeg participants, the vision statement for creating the kind of city Winnipeggers want in 25 years is: ourWinnipeg: living and caring because we plan on staying. This statement considers future generations’ social, economic and environmental wellbeing in the decisions we make today. It’s a recognition that the survival of future generations is our responsibility and that when we act, we need to consider how those actions will affect future generations. Photo: Ruehle Design livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 9 a sustainable w innipeg > ourwinnipeg’s sustainability p rinciples That vision is guiding the creation of OurWinnipeg, and as a long-term plan, it will be guided by supporting sustainability principles: inCluDe everyone: goals and actions need to consider all Winnipeggers and address accessibility. Work to WArDS equity: opportunities and access should be shared. mAke De CiSionS trAnSp Arently: decision making processes should be as clear and as open as possible. be C ontinuouS AnD reSilient: the plan needs to be permanent, but it also needs to respond to new opportunities and threats, like Peak Oil. everything ShoulD Align: every part of the plan, from its vision, through to its goals, objectives, targets and measurement need to work together. meASure progreSS: every goal needs targets, indicators and regular measurement, and results should be reported. ADApt: lessons learned from measurement and experience should lead to changes, and new ideas should be accommodated. promote SuS tAinAble thinking: deal with the causes of our challenges to sustainability, some of which are based on habits and old ways of doing things. humAn element: address the social dimension of change – raise awareness, educate and support change towards sustainable behaviour. Set go AlS: measure progress using targets, indicators and regular measurement; report results. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 10 04 the opportunity for ChAnge a sustainable w innipeg > The opportunity for change Canada has long been recognized internationally as a country with a high quality of life. In 2009, Canada was ranked fourth in the world among developed countries for quality of life, based on the UN’s Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI is a composite statistic used as an index to rank countries by level of “human development” and separates developed, developing, and underdeveloped countries. The statistic is derived from data collected on life expectancy, education, and GDP at the national level. FCM sees the current reality of Canada’s municipalities in this way: Our cities and communities are at a tipping point. The choices we make now will either allow Canada to fulfill its promise, or cause us to miss the opportunities open to a country with reservoirs of talent, technology and resources. With the right choices, the Canada of 2030 will be a prosperous and connected country, with efficient, sustainable transportation moving goods efficiently from port to city to countryside, and people from home to work and school and back again. It will have vibrant cities that welcome talented people from around the world. Governments will work together to find long-term solutions to common problems—regardless of jurisdiction—based on the best interests of Canadians. populA tion gro Wth Winnipeg is poised to change significantly in the next few decades (figure 04a). Our population growth is outpacing our supply of land for development, and Winnipeggers are increasingly committed to looking for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable solutions. That means we face new challenges. It also means we have new opportunities in answering new kinds of questions: > How will we accommodate and take advantage of this level of growth while ensuring that our city stays liveable, desirable and affordable? > How will we make sure that this growth benefits all Winnipeggers? > How will we find room for almost 83,000 new households while maintaining and enriching what we value most? livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 11 a sustainable w innipeg > The opportunity for change SignifiCAnt gro Wth foreCASteD (ADJuS teD to 2008 b ASe) Winnipeg CenSuS metropolitAn AreA (CmA) reS t of Winnipeg reS t of CmA 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 900,000 1,000,000 people yeAr Figure 04a , Long term growth projections for Winnipeg Source: Conference Board of Canada, winter 2007 86 1986 889092949698 1998 0002040608 2009 101214161820222426282031 30 ADDitionAl people over next 10 yeArS 22 yeArS Winnipeg CmA 83,000210,000 City of Winnipeg 70,000174,000 reS t of CmA 14,000 36,000 650,700 684,700742,400 952,200 606,300 628,500675,100 849,00 44,400 56,200 67,300 103,200 livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 12 04 The oppoRTuniTy foR Chfnge a sustainable w innipeg > The opportunity for change equity AnD opportunity To be a competitive city, Winnipeg has been doing its part to foster inclusion and equity, support diversity and engage newcomers to our city. The ongoing involvement, participation and wellness of our diverse communities in shaping the future of Winnipeg is critical–especially for growing communities such as Aboriginal Winnipeggers and International Newcomers. Providing opportunity for all is important to our city’s competitiveness. All Winnipeggers must have an opportunity to participate– socially and economically. We recognize that our success as a city depends on the well-being and contribution of all Winnipeggers. infrAS truCture Infrastructure is a critical issue facing all Canadian municipalities. A report prepared by the Winnipeg Public Service in July 2009 calculated the City’s total infrastructure deficit at $7.4 billion for existing and new strategic infrastructure over the next 10 years (in constant 2009 dollars) (figure 04b). The City of Winnipeg is committed to working with other levels of government on sustainable infrastructure funding strategies and to applying creativity and innovation in addressing infrastructure needs. eC onomiC pro Sperity According to the Conference Board of Canada, Winnipeg is expected to enjoy a relatively healthy economy over the next 25 years, thanks to a diversifying manufacturing sector, an expanding services sector and solid employment growth. A high level summary of key economic indicators for Winnipeg to 2030 paints a positive picture of a community with a steady economic engine: > From 2007 to 2030, population growth is expected to average 1.1 per cent per year, while real gross domestic product (GDP) growth is forecast to average 2.5 per cent per year. > Although the population will age as baby boomers enter retirement age, rising immigration will help support growth in Winnipeg’s labour force. > Winnipeg is expected to attract an average of 8,700 net international migrants each year from 2007 to 2030. > Sound employment prospects and relative housing affordability will boost inter-provincial and intercity migration to Winnipeg. Winnipeg cannot simply rest comfortably on this forecast, as other cities in Canada and beyond are aggressively competing to attract and retain business, development and residents. In addition to continuing to focus on “the basics” of infrastructure, the City needs to collaborate on key quality of life issues. Winnipeggers have stated that they want a competitive city that generates opportunities for business and residents, that provides a clean, safe environment for its citizens and visitors, that encourages innovation and supports sustainability, that leads in certain business and education fields, that offers a range of options for recreation, housing and lifestyles and that celebrates its unique status as a centre for arts and culture. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 13 04 The oppoRTuniTy foR Chfnge a sustainable w innipeg > The opportunity for change $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $3,500 $4,000 $4,500 $5,000 $5,500 $6,000 $6,500 $7,000 $7,500 2009 2016 2015 2014 2013 2018 2012 2011 2010 2017 $476 $308$232 $387 $387 $310 Extended fapitab Pban at $350 mibbion per year $3.5 bibbion furrent Infrastructure Defcit $7.4 bibbion fumubative Infrastructure Defcit in 10 years $3.9 bibbion Growth in Infrastructure Defcit over next 10 years 2009 fapitab Budget Pban Figure 04b , City of Winnipeg 10 year infrastructure deficit gro Wing infrAS truCture DefiCit livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 14 04 The oppoRTuniTy foR Chfnge a sustainable w innipeg > The opportunity for change heAlthy CommunitieS “You are where you live.” Where we live can affect our health and our life chances in many ways—the quality of the air, soil and water; opportunities for exercise and recreation; access to healthy food; our personal safety; the availability of jobs; the existence of social networks. lAnD Supply AnD AfforDAbility Housing affordability is affected by many variables, of which land cost is one. An adequate and managed supply of land available for development is one aspect of protecting housing (and, more broadly, development) affordability. By using an urban structure, the City can balance growth in new and existing areas of the city. (See: Complete Communities) WhA t iS An urb An StruCture, AnD Why DoeS ourWinnipeg uSe one? An urban structure is a planning tool that differentiates between areas of the city based on their period of growth and descriptive characteristics. This approach recognizes the uniqueness of different neighbourhoods and provides the basis for fitting policies and strategies to the specific development opportunities and limitations in each area of the city. For a city like Winnipeg that is anticipating significant growth and change, an urban structure provides a way to focus change in places where it has positive social, economic and environmental results. Regular updates to the urban structure based on actual changes will keep it current and ensure that it contributes to the overall OurWinnipeg vision and directions. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 15 04 The oppoRTuniTy foR Chfnge a sustainable w innipeg > The opportunity for change ClimAte ChAnge Resulting from an accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, climate change is recognized as a serious global environmental problem. The concentrations of population, investment, infrastructure and vehicles make cities highly susceptible to the potential effects of climate change. Political and public debate continues regarding climate change. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Recognizing the importance of dealing with climate change, on November 25, 1998, the City of Winnipeg committed to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) Partners for Climate Protection (PCP) and is now one of more than 200 Canadian municipalities committed to the development and implementation of a climate change action plan detailing how specific greenhouse gas emissions targets will be met and how progress will be measured. Our environment is the foundation for our economic and social health, and collectively, we need to continue to take responsibility for it. Our actions should contribute to the protection of the natural environment locally, regionally and globally, both for our own well-being and for future generations. Source: AECOM livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 16 05 the f ounDAtion: leADing by exAmple a sustainable w innipeg > The foundation: leading by example Citizens look to their governments to provide and demonstrate leadership, incorporating the values of the community into all aspects of their service provision. This is especially true of the municipal government level, as it has the most visible day to day impact on their lives. Leadership in sustainability is no different, and in fact may be more critical. Although citizens want to live in sustainable ways, many are unsure how to do this in their daily lives or what new choices and ways of doing things are actually the best courses of action. The City of Winnipeg will work to embed sustainability into internal decisions and actions and into public programs and polices to create a solid foundation for advancing sustainability on a community-wide basis. WhAt WinnipeggerS t olD uS Through SpeakUpWinnipeg , Winnipeggers were emphatic that their municipal government should take leadership in making Winnipeg sustainable. Some of their ideas were: > Launch in-house programs and initiatives that advance sustainability. > Embed sustainability into policies and decisions that have an impact on the community. > Work in partnership with the communities, businesses and other public sector agencies to achieve our vision of a sustainable Winnipeg. > Make sustainability a focus for both City operations and community initiatives. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 17 a sustainable w innipeg > The foundation: leading by example DireCtion 1: builD A Culture of SuS tAinAbility Within the City’ S publiC ServiCe through An ongoing SuS tAinAble WorkplACe initiA tive. enAbling StrAtegieS: > Provide ongoing orientation and learning opportunities for employees regarding sustainability as a core component of the City’s culture and the role they play in advancing sustainability through their actions and decisions. > Identify key behavioural changes required to move the organization towards a more sustainable delivery model, and utilize social marketing and other tools to shift to more sustainable behaviours. > Create tools and information sources for employees to assist in awareness building and knowledge development regarding sustainability. > Create employee networks and other mechanisms to coordinate sustainability-related activities within the civic organization. > Implement a code of practice to encourage socially, economically and environmentally-responsible methods, applications and procedures in civic operations. > Coordinate sustainability activities within the public service. Dire Ction 2: inC orporAte SuStAinAble prAC tiCeS into internAl CiviC operA tionS, progrAmS AnD ServiCeS. enAbling StrA tegieS: > Develop and maintain a sustainability directive for the Winnipeg Public Service to embed sustainable thinking and action into the City of Winnipeg’s operations. > Identify potential changes to business practices to reduce resource use, and develop a plan to incorporate changes. > Create a corporate waste diversion strategy for the organization, including baselines and benchmarks. > In partnership with the community, create and maintain a Climate Change Action Plan to reduce the City of Winnipeg’s corporate greenhouse gas emissions by a further 20% below 1998 levels. > Establish corporate greenhouse gas reduction targets for 2020 and 2035. > Green the City’s fleet operations through a plan that includes direction on anti-idling, efficient vehicles, use of alternate fuels and the right-sizing of the fleet. > Investigate opportunities to sell greenhouse gas emission reductions as carbon-offset credits. > Solicit input from citizens and other interested parties on potential innovative funding tools to support sustainability efforts. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 18 05 The f oundfTion: lefding by exfmple a sustainable w innipeg > The foundation: leading by example DireCtion 3: promote Citizen AWAreneSS of SuS tAinAbility enAbling StrA tegieS: > Assist in knowledge and awareness development regarding sustainability by linking citizens to easily accessible tools and information sources. > Support programs and initiatives that recognize and reward sustainable planning and actions for citizens and businesses. > Enhance volunteer contributions to sustainability efforts within civic programs and initiatives through innovative recruitment, allocation and recognition efforts. Dire Ction 4: eS tAbliSh p ArtnerShipS With C ommunitieS, buSineSSeS AnD other publiC Se Ctor A genCieS to AChieve Joint go AlS to WArDS A SuS tAinAble Winnipeg. enAbling StrA tegieS: > Create tools to assist the Winnipeg Public Service in identifying and assessing potential partnerships for sustainable programs, services and initiatives. > Maintain strong working relationships with organizations, businesses, other levels of government and non-governmental organizations with sustainability mandates, acknowledging their contributions to sustainability and seeking to involve them in mutually beneficial sustainability opportunities. > Consider the creation of dedicated resources to support and leverage potential sustainability partnership opportunities that may be presented to the City. > Partner with non-governmental organizations, business and other levels of government to access or develop tools that strategically enhance the technical and social capacity of individuals and organizations interested in enhancing Winnipeg’s sustainability.These enhancements could be in areas such as sustainable procurement, local food opportunities, addressing poverty, literacy, green energy, education and awareness, sustainable design, water and energy efficiency. Title: land/mark; Artists: Jacqueline Metz & Nancy Chew Location: Bishop Grandin Greenway (near NW corner of Bishop Grandin & St Anne’s Road) Media: aluminum, granite; Date: 2009; Photo: Robert Tinker livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 19 05 The f oundfTion: lefding by exfmple a sustainable w innipeg > The foundation: leading by example DireCtion 5: AChieve pro Sperity through A City C ompetitiveneSS S trAtegy. (See OurWinnipeg, Section 01, “A City that Works”) enAbling StrA tegieS: > Provide efficient and focused civic administration and governance. > Provide sound municipal management. > Provide a predictable and cost-effective business environment that promotes investment and growth. > Maintain strong intergovernmental cooperation. > Collaborate with all public, private and community economic development agencies to advance economic advantages. > Encourage activities beneficial to Winnipeg’s economy. > Demonstrate visionary civic leadership and commitment to sustainable long-term planning. > Plan for a rising share of employment growth and productivity. > Create favourable conditions for development that is consistent with the principles and goals of Complete Communities. Dire Ction 6: tAke AC tion to SuStAin A vibrAnt AnD reSilient Winnipeg (See OurWinnipeg) enAbling StrA tegieS: > Take leadership in supporting a safe Winnipeg. > Support diverse housing choices. > Foster an inclusive community. > Collaborate to address poverty. > Take leadership in providing accessible recreation and wellness services for Winnipeggers. > Build and sustain neighbourhood vitality. > Support lifelong learning & literacy. > Help create age-friendly and accessible communities. > Take leadership in supporting the significant contribution of culture and the arts to Winnipeg’s quality of life. > Conserve, protect and celebrate Winnipeg’s heritage. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 20 06 trACk progreSS a sustainable w innipeg > Track p rogress Through SpeakUpWinnipeg , we have set a vision and directions for OurWinnipeg. In order to track our progress towards this vision, we need a system of measurement and of regular checks to know our standing in relation to established goals. Measurement will support continuous improvement in a sustainable Winnipeg City as we strive to obtain our objectives and position Winnipeg as the leading sustainable city in Canada. WhA t WinnipeggerS t olD uS Through SpeakUpWinnipeg , Winnipeggers expressed a strong desire and even a demand for accountability, transparency and measurement in City decision-making and processes. Winnipeggers want their civic government to ensure efficiency and effectiveness by measuring progress, and they want ready access to that information. They want to be informed about progress and to be able to see for themselves where they can make contributions to our long-term sustainability. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 21 06 trACk progreSS a sustainable w innipeg > Track p rogress DireCtion 1: the City of Winnipeg Will uSe AnD regulArly report on A Set of SuS tAinAbility inDiCA torS, DevelopeD to meet beS t prACtiCeS for SuS tAinAble Development plAnning. enAbling StrA tegieS: > Involve the community in developing and refining a set of indicators. These indicators should be based on best practices in other municipalities, including the Bellagio STAMP (See Sidebar, “The Bellagio STAMP, pg 24). > Continue as an active partner in the Community Indicator System (PEG) project together with the United Way of Winnipeg, the International Institute for Sustainable Development, the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs, the Province of Manitoba and other supporters. > Produce an annual Sustainability Report that details indicator measurements, summarizes progress towards sustainability targets and points the way for continuous improvement. > Use the sustainability indicators and sustainability reporting process as a formal input for ongoing planning, decision-making and improvement efforts. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 22 06 TRfCk pR ogRess a sustainable w innipeg > Track p rogress 06-1 A frAmeW ork for SuStAinAbility meASurement WhA t iS A SuS tAinAbility inDiCA tor? Indicators are one kind of measurement tool. An indicator helps us understand where we are, which way we are going and how far we are from where we want to be. Sustainability indicators reflect the reality that social, environmental and economic realms are tightly interconnected, as shown in figure 06a. For communities interested in improving overall economic, social or environmental sustainability, indicators can help point the way to a better future by serving as a planning and decision making tool. Indicators also serve an important engagement and communication role. Measurement of progress towards a shared vision can generate discussion among people with different backgrounds and viewpoints, and in the process, help identify opportunities for community collaboration and involvement in achieving shared goals. Figure 06a, the Interconnection of Realms in Sustainability Indicators. the bellA gio StAmp In 1996, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) brought together an international group of measurement practitioners and researchers to review progress on sustainability development and to synthesize insights from practical ongoing efforts. The results were published as the Bellagio Principles. The Principles have been used for assessing progress toward sustainability by local and international organizations and have recently been updated (October 2009) through new work by the IISD and the Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD). They are now called the Bellagio STAMP: SusTainability Assessment and Measurement Principles. You can find out more about the Bellagio Principles online at: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/brochure_bellagiostamp.pdf W Ater qu Ality eDuCAtion StoCkholDer profit S Air qu Ality heAlth mA teriAlS for proDuC tion nA turAl reS our CeS poverty Crime JobS livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 23 06 TRfCk pR ogRess a sustainable w innipeg > Track p rogress hoW Will inDiCA torS be SeleCteD ? The selection of indicators is a critical step in the process of developing a measurement system. Indicators need to be meaningful, valid (they measure what they’re intended to measure), easy to understand and able to be measured in a practical way. Further conversation with the community is needed before their final selection. The City intends to apply the Bellagio STAMP, which capture globally-recognized best practices, to guide the process of developing a measurement system (See Sidebar, “The Bellagio STAMP”, pg 24). ourWinnipeg meASureS up Measuring where we’re at and whether we’re progressing towards the vision of OurWinnipeg requires choosing indicators and setting targets. Currently, only a few indicators have been selected, often through programs or projects the City of Winnipeg is already involved in. Additional indicators will need to be chosen to ensure all aspects of OurWinnipeg– social, environmental and economic priorities – are able to be tracked over the long term. We will only be able to see the impact of policies and actions by the City with a balanced set of measures. With this important information, the City can consider the effectiveness of its approaches over the long term and can fully enable partners to contribute to the shared vision for OurWinnipeg by reducing barriers or dynamically aligning incentives to desired outcomes. Tools like the Bellagio STAMP can help guide the process of choosing appropriate and meaningful things to measure, but the actual process of choosing which indicators to use will have to consider community priorities and the data that is either already available or able to be gathered efficiently. An open community dialogue on the selection of indicators will take place in the 12 months following adoption of the plan. In most cases, the setting of specific targets for change (for example, real or percentage- based increases or reductions in a given area) is a decision to be considered by City Council. Council will consider the short and long-term social, economic and environmental implications of each target before making a decision. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 24 06 TRfCk pR ogRess a sustainable w innipeg > Track p rogress hoW Will the SuS tAinAbility inDiCA torS be uSeD? AS An overAll meASure of progreSS toWArDS our viSion. Over time and with regular measurements, the indicators will provide a clear picture of our progress towards our vision. This transparent measurement is important to ensuring that OurWinnipeg is effectively guiding the city in the way Winnipeggers want. AS A plAnning AnD De CiSion-mAking tool. The understanding of progress, trends and pressures gained from the indicators will be used as factors in budgeting, service planning and policy/program review. Since many planning issues involve multiple levels of government, the indicators must also assess the results of joint action and ongoing intergovernmental collaboration. The information will be available to the public. Community organizations, businesses and partners can use it to help inform their own planning. AS A plAnning CommuniCAtion tool. As an important and easy to understand part of the sustainability reporting process, the indicators can be used to communicate progress, change and opportunities for community involvement on shared goals. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 25 06 TRfCk pR ogRess a sustainable w innipeg > Track p rogress Title: The Spence Community Compass: Finding Home Artist: Leah Decter and the Spence Neighbouthood Association through the WITH ART Program Location: Furby Park (on Furby Street, north of Ellice Avenue) Media: tile mosaic, concrete, text, indigenous plants Date: 2008 Photo: cam bush Source: Winnipeg Arts Council livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 26 07 integrA te SuStAinAbility into internAl De CiSion-mAking a sustainable winnipeg > integrate sustainability into internal fecision-making “Integrating sustainability” means that environmental, social and economic factors are incorporated into decision-making. Communities are increasingly integrating sustainability into their key business processes for different reasons, whether to manage new risks, gain business opportunity or extend their role in society. Companies develop and use standard business processes to run every aspect of their operation. These processes provide a set of platforms for material sustainability factors to be built into corporate activities. Sustainability has become a core part of business for many companies. Leaders are integrating sustainability into the full cycle of business processes, from strategic and business planning, to business development, risk management, project management, disclosure and assurance. Strong governance and accountability structures, as well as stakeholder engagement, provide the foundation for this integration of sustainability factors. Sustainability has provided the foundation for OurWinnipeg , and its four supporting Direction Strategies have been developed on this same foundation and through the same integrated planning process. For the first time, Winnipeg’s transportation, water and waste infrastructure, land use and planning processes have been conducted in concert, interweaving the principles and components of each discipline while applying the lenses of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The result of this integrated planning process are sustainability-focused strategies that are integrated, that leverage immediate, intermediate and long term goals and that build on principles as they move Winnipeg closer to achieving its vision: Living and caring because we plan on staying. Strategies are now required to embed sustainability into ongoing decision-making efforts across the organization. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 27 07 integrA te SuStAinAbility into internAl De CiSion-mAking a sustainable winnipeg > integrate sustainability into internal fecision-making DireCtion 1: Strengthen exiS ting integrA teD DeCiSion-mAking AnD plAnning me ChAniSmS, AnD builD neW me ChAniSmS Where requireD . enAbling StrAtegieS: > Create and maintain an integrated community sustainability plan for Winnipeg. > Ensure that decisions are made with due consideration to the social, economic and environmental implications by incorporating a sustainability framework and lens into key internal processes, including capital and operating budget development and review, service planning and both formal and informal reports. > Use sustainability indicators to guide high-level decision-making. > Implement pilot and demonstration projects to drive efficient and focused service provision, based on the sustainability indicators. > Develop new policies and practices— and revise those already existing— to incorporate sustainability into the City’s actions, processes and services. > Utilize full-cost accounting methodologies in decision- making to ensure that all costs and benefits are considered across social, economic and environmental dimensions. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 28 08 CreA te AnD inveS t in SuStAinAbility t oolS a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools The greatest challenge in creating a dynamic and responsive integrated community sustainability plan lies in smoothly transitioning from planning to implementation and maintaining momentum beyond the first year. Overcoming that challenge makes the difference between a plan of action and one that sits on a shelf. Embedding the tools required to support planned sustainability strategies directly into the plan document bridges that divide, grounding the plan in reality and making the plan accessible to all. OurWinnipeg and its supporting Direction Strategies have sustainability woven into their fabric. Each of the Direction Strategies is also replete with tools that support sustainability and that link planning with implementation. This section summarizes the breadth of sustainability implementation tools that have been embedded into OurWinnipeg and its four Direction Strategies, along with references for finding the strategy detail in each relevant document. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 29 08 CreA te AnD inveS t in SuStAinAbility t oolS a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools 08-1 Complete C ommunitieS Winnipeg is fortunate that it can historically be described as a community of communities; it is made up of many distinct and unique neighbourhoods, all woven together by a rich community spirit. Promoting the completion of Winnipeg’s existing communities and guiding the creation of new complete communities are paramount in ensuring that the city is a sustainable and vibrant place to call home for generations. The Vision Statement for Complete Communities articulates the preferred direction moving forward: “The City of Winnipeg is planned and designed based on a logical urban structure that focuses growth and change to enhance existing assets, to create complete communities and complete existing communities, and to ensure a socially, environmentally and economically sustainable future through the integration of transportation planning, land uses, built forms and urban design.” the implement Ation ‘toolbox’ A variety of tools will be employed to make sure that proposed projects that align with Complete Communities objectives are approved in a timely manner. These tools will include some existing fiscal, planning and sustainability tools but will also include new and innovative tools, such as strategic investment in infrastructure, partnerships and demonstration projects. 08-1a t oolS to Support the i mplement Ation of Su StA in Able Complete CommunitieS plAnning Planning is a key tool for implementing Complete Communities . The successful implementation of Complete Communities as a Direction Strategy largely depends on whether its policies can effectively guide development. This will rely on a variety of planning tools, ranging from statutory plans with their own localized policies guiding an area’s growth, to non-statutory concept plans also able to guide an area’s growth. A key planning tool will be the Complete Communities Checklist. The Checklist, to be developed in partnership with the development community and be endorsed by Council, is a non-regulatory evaluation tool that provides a consistent and comprehensive guide to ‘Complete Communities’ objectives. It is meant to facilitate a collaborative conversation with developers and inform the development application and approval process. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 30 08 CRefTe fnd inbes T in susTfinfbiliTy Tools a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools CApit Al buDget/ infrAS truCture Alignment When anticipated growth is likely, capital forecasts can be aligned to budgeting for growth-related infrastructure requirements. These timely investments that are consistent with plan objectives can act as an incentive for private investors. Establishing these priority areas for growth brings greater certainty and informs investment decisions over the long-term. A budget process that is well integrated with other activities of government, such as the planning and management functions, will also provide better financial and programming decisions, leading to improved governmental efficiencies. A process that effectively involves and reflects the priorities and needs of all stakeholders will serve as a positive force in delivering the services that stakeholders want at a level they can afford. inCentiveS The City should provide financial and non-financial incentives to projects that contribute significantly to our sustainability objectives. Additional innovative tools will be explored on an ongoing basis to facilitate plan implementation. meASurement Effective policy and planning requires an up-to-date understanding of real-world opportunities and challenges. A key tool for implementing Complete Communities will be measurement. Appropriate measures to periodically monitor land supply, growth projections, and actual development patterns will be developed. These measures will be used to adapt the Urban Structure map to reflect changing conditions. Much of the background work for OurWinnipeg has established accurate baseline information to work from. DemonS trAtion pro JeCtS One of the most critical tools to successfully implement Complete Communities may be giving Winnipeggers the opportunity to see the planning possibilities through demonstration projects. The City will work proactively and supportively with the development community and other community stakeholders to demonstrate how the policies and objectives of Complete Communities can translate into compatible and sustainable development of the highest quality. A WAreneSS t oolS (mArketing) These tools would be used for promoting the objectives of Complete Communities , creating interest from the broader development community and encouraging innovative best practices. Examples of awareness tools include urban design awards, ‘green’ building awards, sustainable development awards and built heritage awards. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 31 08 CRefTe fnd inbes T in susTfinfbiliTy Tools a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools le AD erShip, pArtner Ship An D Spon Sor Ship The City will lead by example to support the implementation of Complete Communities. Effective leadership includes: > The willingness of organizational and community leaders and decision-makers to endorse the vision, support the policy direction and champion related projects, actions and initiatives. > Providing transparency and accountability for results (measurement and reporting). > Aligning and adjusting resources and strategies to achieve intended results. Partnerships involve building capacity towards common and mutually beneficial community objectives by pooling the City’s skills and resources with those of agencies, stakeholders, senior government levels, private investors and citizens. In exchange for individual or organizational recognition, private investors, agencies and citizens can have the opportunity to contribute directly to the creation or enhancement of a community asset, amenity or initiative through sponsorships. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 32 08 CRefTe fnd inbes T in susTfinfbiliTy Tools a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools 08-2 SuStAinAble WA ter AnD WAS te The Sustainable Water and Waste Direction Strategy for OurWinnipeg addresses key sustainability pillars, going beyond environmental issues to consider long-term economic viability and community wellness, innovative approaches to infrastructure delivery and regional service- sharing. The Strategy builds on a number of initiatives currently in progress and provides policy directions that reinforce the City’s approaches to water conservation, wastewater management, stormwater management, solid waste minimization and sustainable asset management. 08-2a t oolS Supporting the implement Ation of SuS tAinAble W Ater AnD W ASte infrAS truCture Develop, ADopt AnD implement the SuS tAinAble W Ater AnD W ASte Dire Ction StrA tegy > tool 1: Endorse Sustainable Water and Waste as the primary tool to promote water and waste directions, strategies and actions required to protect public health and safety, ensure the purity and reliability of our water supply and maintain or enhance the quality of our built and natural environments. > tool 2: Within the strategy, apply an integrated and holistic approach to sustainability, going beyond environmental issues to consider long-term economic viability and community wellness, innovative approaches to infrastructure delivery and regional service-sharing. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 33 08 CRefTe fnd inbes T in susTfinfbiliTy Tools a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools mAnAge WAS teWA ter in SAfe, SuStAinAble WA yS W hile rem Aining open to innov Ation > tool 1: Maintain a Combined Sewer Overflow Management Strategy and Master Implementation Plan > tool 2 Investigate and strategically invest in innovative wastewater technologies, including Water Sensitive Urban Design and green technologies such as naturalized solutions to supplement conventional strategies. reDuCe S tormWAter runoff > tool 1: Promote strategies to reduce runoff using natural amenities such as Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and stormwater retention facilities. > tool 2: Develop and apply stormwater runoff reduction and management strategies related to area planning, building siting, urban design, (including streets, sidewalks and parking lots) and traffic calming. CollAborA te With the provinCe AnD C Apit Al region muniCip AlitieS intereSteD in ServiCe ShAring. > tool 1: Determine realistic approaches to joint planning, service sharing and tax sharing, in the context of the application of higher level servicing standards and “Green Technologies” related to water, wastewater and stormwater infrastructure, and solid waste disposal. implement life-C yCle full-C oSt-of- ServiCe funDing of CApit Al proJeCtS > tool 1: Manage investments in physical assets including infrastructure, fleet, and facilities to ensure sustainable and effective procurement, maintenance, replacement and disposal Introduce a common framework for sustainable asset management (SAM) across all City owned infrastructure. Commit to the pro ACtive mAintenAnCe AnD reneWAl of exiS ting infrAStruCture > tool 1: Apply advanced techniques, new technology, best practices, better materials, and innovative products in all infrastructure renewal, rehabilitation, construction, and preventive maintenance programs to maximize return on investment. benChmArk performAnCe to Support C ontinuouS improvement > tool 1: Introduce metrics capable of monitoring the economic, environmental and social performance of infrastructure over time. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 34 08 CRefTe fnd inbes T in susTfinfbiliTy Tools a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools 08-3 SuStAinAble trAnSport Ation Urban transportation is a complex system intimately tied to land use planning and urban design. The provision of transportation systems has a large influence on the form of the built environment and people’s quality of life. Our world is changing at an accelerating pace. Winnipeg is not only part of this global change, it stands to gain by rising to the challenges and seizing the opportunities of this new world. Whether it is becoming a more desirable place for young professionals or becoming a leader in developing sustainable technologies, our transportation system will be central to bringing Winnipeg into the future; it plays a role in everything from neighbourhood safety and family orientation to the efficient delivery of goods and services and commercial viability. An effective sustainable transportation strategy will help guide decisions through changing times and will ensure that Winnipeg is poised to capitalize on opportunities. The transportation strategy needs to balance an ability to be specific enough for guiding decisions in the short term while being flexible and robust enough to encourage continual progress and innovation. 08-3a t oolS to Support the i mplement Ation of A Su StA in Able trAnSport Ation Sy Stem Develop, ADopt AnD implement A SuS tAinAble trAnSport Ation Dire Ction StrA tegy > tool 1: Endorse Sustainable Transportation as the primary tool to guide the planning and development of a multi-modal transportation system. > tool 2: Develop a Transportation Master Plan , which will describe any required transportation improvements and supporting policies needed to achieve the long-term vision in Sustainable Transportation . livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 35 08 CRefTe fnd inbes T in susTfinfbiliTy Tools a sustainable w innipeg > create and invest in sustainability Tools publiC trAnSit Sy Stem > tool 1: Create an equitable, simple and intelligent fare system with incentives to increase ridership and mode split. > tool 2: Develop rapid transit systems. > tool 3: Implement new customer service and information tools and enhance existing ones. > tool 4: Develop transit-oriented land use plans, and encourage the intensification of key transit nodes and corridors. > tool 5: Invest in transit operations to improve service frequency and coverage. > tool 6: Encourage transit use through the implementation of related policies, such as land-use and parking. mAJor Street netW ork > tool 1: Develop a plan to implement corridor improvements in a systemic and efficient manner. > tool 2: Continue support for an asset management program to identify and prioritize key areas of short, medium and long term maintenance. > tool 3: Accommodate all modes and reduce both delay and emissions by investing in selected capacity improvements to existing major street network operations. A Ctive trAnSport Ation > tool 1: Investigate the implementation of a Complete Streets Policy. > tool 2: Develop guidelines ensuring that new development contributes to the pedestrian environment. > tool 3: Increase bicycle parking throughout Downtown, Centres and Corridors and Employment Lands. > tool 4: Measure progress toward sustainable transportation > tool 5: Establish a system of comprehensive performance measurement tied to the Vision and Goals within Sustainable Transportation . livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 36 09 Continue to reSpe Ct AnD vAlue our nA turAl AnD built environment a sustainable w innipeg > continue to r espect and v alue our natural and built environment The natural environment is essential to our city. Our local environment is the foundation for our economic and social health, and collectively, we need to take greater responsibility for it. Our actions should contribute to the protection of the natural environment both regionally and globally, both for our own wellbeing and for future generations. WhAt WinnipeggerS t olD uS Winnipeggers spoke passionately about their natural environment through SpeakUp Winnipeg and demanded decisive action in several key areas, including: > Climate change, both as a civic government and as a community. > Tree planting efforts and preservation of Winnipeg’s extensive and unique urban forest. > Increased opportunities for waste reduction. > Preservation of our parks, green spaces and riverbanks as green oases in our urban setting. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 37 a sustainable w innipeg > continue to r espect and v alue our natural and built environment DireCtion 1: reDuCe the environment Al imp ACt of our AC tionS enAbling StrA tegieS: > Maintain a Climate Change Action Plan to reduce the City of Winnipeg’s operational greenhouse gas emissions by a further 20 per cent below 1998 levels. > Establish a corporate greenhouse gas reduction target for 2020 and 2035. > Create and maintain a Climate Change Action Plan to reduce Winnipeg’s community-wide greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1998 levels. > Establish a community-wide greenhouse gas reduction target for 2020 and 2035. > Create and maintain a Corporate Energy Plan that focuses on reducing energy consumption and on promoting the use of renewable energy sources. > Continue to expand the active transportation network and other active transportation initiatives. > Measure our Ecological Footprint and develop strategies to reduce it. Dire Ction 2: re Cognize AnD preServe Winnipeg’ S pArk S, green Sp ACeS AnD riverb AnkS AS green o ASeS in our urb An Setting enAbling StrA tegieS: > Develop a Parks, Places and Open Space Sustainable Management Plan , created within the overarching framework of sustainability. > Actively and continuously seek out alternative planning, maintenance and operation approaches, products and practices that are sustainable. > Improve ecosystems through restoration, reforestation and effective pest management. > Develop a city-wide natural network connecting neighbourhoods, communities and the river system, providing ecological, recreational and transport benefits. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 38 09 ConTinue T o RespeCT fnd bflue ouR nfTuRfl fnd buil T enbiRonmenT DireCtion 3: Set long rAnge go AlS for S oliD WAS te DiverSion. enAbling StrA tegieS: > Create a comprehensive, city-wide waste reduction strategy, encompassing garbage, recycling and organics that establishes a baseline and targets. > Enhance waste reduction/ diversion education and awareness programs for citizens. > Establish a waste reduction/ diversion education and awareness initiative for the Winnipeg Public Service. > Implement a methane recapture program for Brady Road Landfill. Dire Ction 4: CollAborA te to enSure WA ter AnD Air qu Ality enAbling StrAtegieS: > Maintain the highest practical and cost-effective level of river water quality, consistent with the natural characteristics of local waterways and in accordance with water quality objectives established for the Red and Assiniboine Rivers and Lake Winnipeg. > Partner with government agencies, public agencies, industry and others to monitor and maintain standards for good air quality. a sustainable w innipeg > continue to r espect and v alue our natural and built environment livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 39 09 ConTinue T o RespeCT fnd bflue ouR nfTuRfl fnd buil T enbiRonmenT DireCtion 5: proviDe SAfe AnD effe Ctive pe St An D W ee D C ontrol in City oper Ation S enAbling StrA tegieS: > Ensure rigorous health and safetly training and certification for pesticide application personnel in the Public Service. > Balance the health needs of citizens with the use of pesticides and herbicides. > Adopt clear guidelines for the timing of pesticide application decisions and adopt measures to restrict pesticide use in accordance with the expressed concerns of residents. > Implement new and innovative integrated pest management methods aimed at reducing pesticide use and increasing safety and effectiveness. > Participate in research to identify the sources and environmental pathways of pesticides used within Winnipeg. Dire Ction 6: enAble the prote Ction of e C ologiCAlly SignifiCAnt lAnDS enAbling StrA tegieS: > Evaluate proposed developments that affect high- quality natural areas and encourage the protection and preservation of such lands to the greatest extent possible. > Utilize the Ecologically Significant Natural Lands Strategy and Policy to evaluate proposed developments and transfers of City owned land. > Designate natural areas that are environmentally- sensitive and/or significant and provide measures for the possible acquisition, preservation, protection and maintenance of such lands. > Protect flood plains and unstable riverbank slopes by identifying susceptible areas and employing protective and preventive measures, including the possible acquisition of such lands, to reduce the risk of property damage where appropriate. > Utilize guidelines that assess a value for natural areas on public land. > Encourage private landowner participation in support of riverbank management. a sustainable w innipeg > continue to r espect and v alue our natural and built environment livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 40 09 ConTinue T o RespeCT fnd bflue ouR nfTuRfl fnd buil T enbiRonmenT a sustainable w innipeg > continue to r espect and v alue our natural and built environment DireCtion 7: promote the uSe of riverS AnD riverb AnkS enAbling StrA tegieS: > Facilitate public access to rivers and riverbank lands. > Encourage the use of Winnipeg rivers for transportation and recreation through the provision of boat launches, docks and other accessibility improvements. Dire Ction 8: Support WA terWAy mAnA gement enAbling StrA tegieS: > Cooperate with other levels of government, area municipalities and private landowners to ensure common objectives for the use of waterways. > Subject to federal and provincial statutes, regulate waterway use. > Protect and prolong river access and recreation opportunities during the ice-free season. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 41 09 ConTinue T o RespeCT fnd bflue ouR nfTuRfl fnd buil T enbiRonmenT a sustainable w innipeg > continue to r espect and v alue our natural and built environment DireCtion 9: prote Ct AnD enhAnCe the urb An foreS t enAbling StrA tegieS: > Increase the stock of trees through tree planting programs, and encourage tree planting by others. > Adopt high standards of tree maintenance, replacement and protection during construction, and require developers to retain existing trees in new developments wherever possible. > Replace trees affected by disease, Dutch Elm Disease in particular, and diversify the variety of new trees. > Encourage the participation of other levels of government in programs to protect and enhance the city’s urban forest. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 42 10 firS t StepS a sustainable w innipeg > first steps The implementation of A Sustainable Winnipeg will be coordinated with OurWinnipeg and its other three Direction Strategies. An action plan for advancing the sustainability efforts and initiatives contained in the five key directions will be prepared with short-term, five-year and 25-year time horizons. Three categories of short- term actions will be prioritized for immediate action: 1. Commitments within the Sustainability Priority of A Call to Action for OurWinnipeg : > Sustainable Procurement Community Network and Corporate Sustainable Procurement Policy > Green standards for City buildings > Green Workplace initiative > Green Living Public Education and Awareness Campaign > Online sustainability tools for citizens > Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy > Green Fleet Vehicle Plan > Expanded sustainability scope for the Mayor’s Environmental Advisory Committee > Examine curbside composting > Residential Toilet Rebate Program 2. Development of the sustainability indicator measurement, monitoring and reporting methodology. 3. Actions related to building a corporate culture of sustainability within the Public Service, and working to embed sustainable thinking. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 43 10 firS t StepS a sustainable w innipeg > first steps livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 44 glo SSAry a sustainable w innipeg > introduction eCoSy Stem mAnA gement An ecosystem approach to management considers the natural environment, society and economy, incorporating the broader concepts of sustainability by recognizing the interrelated nature of air, land, water and living organisms. Ecosystem management develops effective partnerships that define units of management by using natural boundaries, such as watersheds, instead of geopolitical boundaries and departmental divisions. full-Co St A CCounting Full-cost accounting integrates the internal and external costs of activities, operations, products and services to the environment. External costs include the environmental impacts of consuming a good or service. inCentiveS Include some existing fiscal, planning and sustainability tools, but will also include new and innovative tools, such as strategic investment in infrastructure, partnerships and demonstration projects. Non fiscal related incentives could include streamlined approval processes. meASurement AnD reporting All citizens must have access to information on environmental conditions, including local data on water quality and quantity, air quality, contaminated sites and point and non-point sources of pollution. Environmental conditions must be measured regularly and the results used as baseline data to benchmark progress toward stated goals. pArtnerShip Municipalities must be fully engaged as partners in deciding on a national vision to achieve Canada’s environmental and sustainable development objectives. As partners, municipal governments need policy consistency and certainty as well as a streamlined approach to regulatory and administrative requirements. Municipal governments also need long-term, stable and predictable funding to support these mutually beneficial objectives. livinG anf carinG because we plan on sTayinG 45 a sustainable w innipeg > introduction polluter pAyS prinCiple The “polluter pays” principle requires that the costs associated with environmental clean-up be borne by the parties responsible. pollution prevention Pollution prevention should be at the centre of programs and policies delivered by all orders of government. The fundamental idea is that environmental pollution is best prevented or reduced at the source. This reduces the release of contaminants into the environment and is important as pollution can impair ecosystem integrity, present risks to human health and compromise the competitiveness of Canada’s cities and communities. Pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled, treated and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. Pollution prevention can be supported by implementing policies and programs that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources, or by the protection of natural resources through conservation initiatives. SuS tAinAble Community plAnning Municipal planning plays a key role in making sustainability possible. Without proper long-term commitments and strategic investments, we cannot plan for and make the necessary changes that will support a strong economy, clean environment and safe streets for our cities and communities.

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