file:///C:/Users/Ahmednoor/Downloads/Boxall%202012%20EHP%20PPCP%20in%20the%20environment%20What%20are%20the%20big%20questions.pdf This is a link to the paper in question number 2
file:///C:/Users/Ahmednoor/Downloads/Boxall%202012%20EHP%20PPCP%20in%20the%20environment%20What%20are%20the%20big%20questions.pdf This is a link to the paper in question number 2
NAME: Final (50 pts) – Fall 2017 Ecological Toxicology (ESM 420/520) Due Date: Friday December 8th email Final to: [email protected] or hard copy at ESM Office (10 pts) Around the 1960’s researchers and the public noticed a decline in the populations of peregrine falcons and bald eagles. What compound was primarily responsible for this decline? What mechanism of toxicity caused the decline of these raptors? Why would peregrine falcon and bald eagle populations decline but not birds like Herring Gulls? Did this problem exist in Oregon, if so where, what species, and at what concentrations were adverse effects observed? (10 pts) There are some estimates that there are 6 million chemicals considered to be pharmaceutical and personal care products. What are the categories of PPCPs that we discussed in class? Considering the large number and large diversity of PPCPs, what are some possible approaches for understanding the ecological toxicology of these chemicals (consider using Boxal et al., 2012). In the Willamette Basin: what PPCPs were detected, at what frequency, and what was the maximum concentration detected; what type of PPCP are they; and would the PPCP cause an effect in the environment? (10 pts) There was a high incidence of Coho pre-spawn mortality (PSM) in the Puget Sound area. Studies were conducted investigating the cause(s). What types of land uses were associated with Coho PSM? What chemicals were associated with Coho PSM? What treatment shows promise for reducing Coho PSM and why? Would Coho PSM be expected in Johnson Creek located in Multnomah County Oregon? GRADUATE STUDENTS: What are two possible explanations for why Coho experience PSM but Chum Salmon spawning in the same creek do not? (10 pts) White sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River are robust, while white sturgeon populations upstream of Bonneville Dam are experiencing poor reproductive success and growth (nutritional status). What was the study design that was used to evaluate if chemicals were having an adverse effect on reproduction and growth? What chemicals were correlated with effects (and what was the threshold level) on reproductive endpoints and growth (nutritional status)? What was the potential mechanism for effects on the male reproductive system? (10 pts) What genus of cyanobacteria commonly causes Harmful Algal Blooms in Oregon? What toxin is produced by this cyanobacteria and where in the body does it cause toxicity? What are three environmental factors that increase the probability of a Harmful Algal Bloom occurring? GRADUATE STUDENTS: What approach(s) can be used to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms in Oregon? 5

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