How is a dead zone formed? What do you think could be done to help prevent the formation of these zones?  Your response should be at least 175 words in length.Summarize the historical use of lead in consumer products. What are the target areas for improving the recycling rate of lead-acid batteries?  Your response should be at least 175 words in length.
Essay two questions 175 words each APA Standard “dead zone” and “lead in consumer products”
BEM 3601, Waste Management 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit V Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 2. Describe the major categories of waste . 2.1 Discuss the sources of pollution in coastal environments . 2.2 Summarize the effects of ocean pollutants . 2.3 Describe the environmental effects of electronic waste . 4. Characterize the components and chemical and physical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) . 4.1 Summarize the chemical and physical properties of electronic waste . 6. Discuss waste disposal techniques and technologies . 6.1 Discuss the ways in which battery -recycling rates can be further improved . 6.2 Identify the ways in which recycled tires can be used . Reading Assignment Chapter 19 : Ocean Pollution Chapter 20 : Electronic Waste Chapter 21 : Tyre Recycling Chapter 22 : Battery Waste Unit Lesson Ocean Pollution Oceans are so vast that it can be easy to overestimate the amount of pollution that might be absorbed by them without consequence. However, the consequences of ocean pollution are becoming more and more apparent. There are many sources of ocean pollution, both point and non -point. In this unit, we will examine organic matter and nutrients, trace metals, and organic waste. UNIT V STUDY GUIDE Ocean Pollution, Electronic Waste, Tire Recycling, and Battery Waste BEM 3601, Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Organic matter and nutrients can originate from natural sources, but anthropogenic contributions are significant. Excess nutrients and organic matter are a problem because they cause algae to grow excessively. When the alga e dies, it decompose s due to bacteria in the water. During the process of decomposition, the bacteria use up the dissolved oxygen in the water causing dead zones where no organisms can live. Trace metals can be dissolved or found in ocean sediments, and some come from the erosion of rocks and sediments. However, high concentrations of metal such as silver have been found in coastal regions near wastewater discharges (Macias -Zamora, 2011). Organic waste consists of oil pollution, persistent organic pollutants, and polychlorinated biphenyls. There have been over 25 major oil spills in the oceans since 1967, and oil pollution is one of the most predominant forms of ocean pollution (Macais -Zamora, 2011). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and will also bioaccumulate in ocean life. Both classes of chemicals are persistent, so even though they are no longer being manufactured, they are still having a detrimental impact on coastal and marine ecosystems (Macais – Zamora, 2 011). Electronic Waste Think about how much electronic waste you have at your home waiting for disposal. Perhaps there is an old desktop tower in the basement or maybe an old cell phone in a drawer. Electronic devices are constantly being updated, and m any people buy the latest model even if the device they have is still functional. For the year 2005, it was estimated that household e -waste amounted to 20 million tons globally (Cui & Roven, 2011). E-waste contains hazardous materials such as lead, mercur y, and cadmium. Above: Workers use high -pressure, hot – water washing equipment during cleanup efforts following the Valdez oil spill. (Svdmolen, 2005 ) Right: Pipe runoff in the U.S. Virgin Islands runs directly into the ocean, just a short distance from reefs that may be home to numerous species of mari ne life. (Lfstevens, 2011) BEM 3601, Waste Management 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title As with most of the other waste streams we have learned about in this course, there is a hierarchy of how e -waste should be managed. Reuse is most preferable followed by remanufacture and recycling, then by landfilling and incineration. When e -waste is recycled, it is first dissembled to recover parts of value and to separate out more hazardous components. This process can have detrimental impacts to human health and the environment due to the release of toxic substances during the disassembly process (Cui & Roven, 2011). Tire Recycling In 2003 , 290 million scrap tires were generated in the United State s. Of these, 80.4% were used as fuel or recycled. This recycling market meant that 27 million scrap tires had t o be disposed of in landfills ( U.S. EPA , 201 4). There are four basic material groups in all tires: natural and synthetic rubber, carbon blacks/s ilicas, reinforcing materials, and facilitators. Depending on the treatment level, tires can be recycled for use in a variety of ways , from asphalt additives and road sealants to play surfaces and carpet underlay (Shulman, 2011). Recycling tires can save e normous amounts of energy. According to Shulman (2011), the recycling of 8.5 million tons of tires in the European Union between 1999 and 2009, rather than manufacturing the same amount of new tire rubber, produced an energy savings of 174,300,000 barrels of petroleum. Battery Waste According to the EPA, 96% of all lea d-acid batteries are recycled ( U.S. EPA , 2012). This is the largest recycling rate of any product in the United States (Miller, 2012). Since most retailers that sell batteries collect them for recycling, consumers can properly dispose of their used batteries. When batteries are not properly disposed of, they can end up in incinerators, where they release toxic chemicals into the air and incine rator ash ( U.S. EPA , 2012). Because lead is a tox ic substance, it is important that we look for ways to recover even mo re of this waste stream. Opportunit ies for additional recovery would result from people being aware of , and avoiding, actions that result in the following : lead in spent batteries with c onsumers, mishandled batteries sent to auto wreckers, and lead in spent batteries in municipal waste (Genaidy & Sequeira, 2011). References Cui, J. , & Roven, H. J. (2011). Electronic waste. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 281 -29 6). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Genaidy, A. , & Sequeira, R. (2011). Battery waste. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 321 -32 8). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Lfstevens. (2011). Runoff from this pipe in the U.S. Virgin Islands spews directly into the ocean only a few hundred yards from reefs [Photograph]. Retrieved from _di rectly_into_the_ocean_only_a_few_hundred_yards_from_reefs.jpg Macias -Zamora, J. V. (2011). Ocean p ollution. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 265 -279 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . Miller, C. (2012). Lead -acid batteries. Waste Age, 43 (10), 59. Shulman, V. L. (2011). Tyre recycling. In T. M. Letcher, & D. A. Vallero (Eds.), Waste: A handbook for management (pp. 298 -320 ). Burlington, MA: Academic Press . BEM 3601, Waste Management 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Svdmolen. (2005). OilCleanupAfterValdezSpill [Photograph]. Retrieved from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). Scrap tires: Basic information. Retrieved from U.S . Environmental Protection Agency (2012). Batteries. Retrieved from

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