Chapter 71. In case studies, _____ are identified by the frequency with which the same term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.a.themesb.threatsc.linksd.ladders2. In a focus group discussion, when the comments of one member triggers a stream of comments from the other participants, this is called:a.serendipityb.piggybackc.structured.all of the above3. The written set of guidelines that describes an outline of topics to be covered by a focus group moderator is called a:a.discussion guideb.TAT testc.concept testd.case study4. Research that addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and analysis approaches is called:a.quantitative researchb.qualitative researchc.extensive researchd.grounded research5. All of the following are situations that often call for qualitative research EXCEPT:a.when it is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectivesb.when conclusive evidence is desiredc.when researchers want to learn how consumers use a product in natural settingsd.when a fresh approach to studying some problem is needed6. A focus group moderator needs to be a good listener. (T/F)7. The ideal size of a focus group is 20 to 25 people. (T/F)Exam 2 28. Laddering is an approach to probing, asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels that produces distinctions at different levels. (T/F)9. The sentence completion method is a type of free-association technique. (T/F)10. A primary advantage of the case study is that an entire organization or entity can be investigated in depth. (T/F)11. A focus group typically involves a rigid question-and-answer session among participants. (T/F)12. Studying cultures using methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture is called ethnography. (T/F)13. Hermeneutics is an approach to understanding phenomenology that relies on analysis of texts in which a person tells a story about him- or herself. (T/F)14. Stephanie was asked to look at a picture of a woman sitting on a deserted beach and to describe what was happening in the picture. She was then asked to tell what might happen next. Stephanie was participating in a(n):a.aptitude testb.focus interviewc.thematic apperception testd.focus blog15. Kodetra works at a large consumer-packaged goods company and is interpreting consumers’ blog postings on the Internet, paying special attention to comments about her company. Which of the following best describes the type of research Kodetra is conducting?a.independent researchb.dependent researchc.quantitative researchd.qualitative researchChapter 1116. Hidden observation studies must be alert to situations in which the subject’s right to privacy must be protected. (T/F)17. Having observers record the brand names of items found in a kitchen pantry of a consumer panel is an example of what type of observation?a.physical actionsb.verbal behaviorc.physical objectsd.pictorial recordsExam 2 318. In observation studies, it is normally not necessary to ask a person who is being observed to state his or her gender, since that characteristic can be observed. (T/F)19. John is measuring the amount of time it takes for people to make a choice between two options regarding what to select for lunch to infer the strength of their preferences for one alternative over the other. The recorded choice time is referred to as:a.response lagb.response intervalc.response latencyd.response bias20. A source of error in observation studies is in the interpretation of the meaning of the observation data. (T/F)21. All of the following are observable phenomena EXCEPT:a.attitudesb.verbal behaviorc.spatial relations and locationsd.neurological activity22. Scanner data can observe supermarket sales in response to a local newspaper ad promotion. (T/F)23. Using a stopwatch to determine the average waiting time for a customer at a drive-through location at McDonald’s is an example of what type of observation?a.verbal behaviorb.temporal patternc.physical actiond.physical objects24. Direct observation is a straightforward attempt to observe and record what naturally occurs. (T/F)25. When Walgreen’s uses cables across the road as “traffic counters” to determine the density of traffic near a possible retail store location, this is an example of what type of observation?a.contrived observationb.mechanical observationc.human observationd.content analysis26. Response latency is the amount of time it takes to make a choice between two alternatives. (T/F)Exam 2 427. Clara is a researcher who records shoppers’ movement through a grocery store. What method of research is Clara using?a.surveyb.assessmentc.immersiond.observation28. Researchers can observe people or events with human observers or with machines. (T/F)Chapter 2129. The opposite of the null hypothesis is called the _____ hypothesis.a.pureb.alphac.alternatived.secondary30. The values that lie exactly on the boundary of the region of rejection for hypothesis-testing are called the:a.degrees of freedomb.critical valuesc.significance leveld.confidence interval31. The error caused by rejecting the null hypothesis when it is, in fact, true is called a:a.Type II errorb.confidence level errorc.confidence interval errord.Type I error32. Which type of error occurs when the researcher concludes a relationship exists when in fact one does not exist?a.Type Ib.Type IIc.Type Ad.Type B33. The two types of errors researcher run the risk of committing when sampling are:a.primary and secondary errorsb.Type I and Type II errorsc.critical and noncritical errorsd.Type A and Type B errorsExam 2 534. When the probability of a Type II error is _____ , the probability of a Type I error is _____.a.reduced, increasedb.reduced; reducedc.increased; increasedd.none of the above35. Failing to identify a hypothesized difference using a sample result when one really does exist in the population is which type of error?a.primaryb.secondaryc.Type Id.Type II36. The number of observations minus the number of constraints or assumptions needed to calculate a statistical term is called:a.statistical powerb.t-levelc.degrees of freedomd.significance level37. You have not made a mistake if the null hypothesis is false, and you decide to reject the null hypothesis. (T/F)38. When sample size (n) is larger than _____, the t-distribution and Z-distribution are almost identical.a.10b.20c.25d.3039. The scale of measurement used by the researcher determines the allowable statistical techniques in the research study. (T/F)40. The logic behind the chi-square test is to compare the observed frequencies with the expected frequencies in the data set. (T/F)

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