I need assistance with an article reviewARTICLE REVIEW INSTRUCTIONS
You will write an article review, relevant to this week’s learning module and readings. You will select the article yourself by searching the UWA Library Databases. The article you choose should be a research article (has a hypothesis that is empirically tested). Pick an article relevant to a topic covered in the weekly readings. Each review is worth 20 points. The review should be 1-2 single-spaced pages in a 12-point font. It is in your best interest to submit your review before it is due so you may check your originality report and correct any spelling and grammatical errors identified by the software program.
The purpose of the review is to provide students knowledge of how research is conducted and reported. The main part of your review needs to include the following information. Please comment on these aspects of the article as part of your review. Provide only the briefest summary of content. What I am most interested in is your critique and connection to weekly readings.
Reference.Listed at the top of the paper in APA style.
Introduction. Read the introduction carefully. The introduction should contain:
· A thorough literature review that establishes the nature of the problem to be addressed in the present study (the literature review is specific to the problem)
· The literature review is current (generally, articles within the past 5 years)
· A logical sequence from what we know (the literature review) to what we don’t know (the unanswered questions raised by the review and what this study intended to answer
· The purpose of the present study
· The specific hypotheses/research questions to be addressed.
· State the overall purpose of the paper. What was the main theme of the paper?
· What new ideas or information were communicated in the paper?
· Why was it important to publish these ideas?
Methods. The methods section has three subsections. The methods sections should contain:
participants and the population they are intended to represent (are they described as well in terms of relevant demographic characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, education level, income level, etc?).
· The number of participants and how the participants were selected for the study
· A description of the
tools/measuresused and research design employed.
· A detailed description of the procedures of the study including participant instructions and whether incentives were given.
Results. The results section should contain a very thorough summary of results of all analyses. This section should include:
· Specific demographic characteristics of the sample
· A thorough narrative description of the results of all statistical tests that addressed specific hypotheses
· If there are tables and figures, are they also described in the text?
· If there are tables and figures, can they be interpreted “stand alone” (this means that they contain sufficient information iJournal of Counseling & Development ■ Winter 2007 ■ Volume 8524
© 2007 by the American Counseling Association. All rights reserved.
For many decades, counselors and counseling psychologists
have been concerned with the relationship between individu-
als’ mental health and the social milieus in which people live.
As the racial and ethnic diversity of the United States con-
tinues to increase, the need for mental health professionals
to tailor their mental health services to the needs of various
cultural populations has become more germane (Constantine,
Kindaichi, Arorash, Donnelly, & Jung, 2002). In particular,
the growing recognition of the negative consequences of
oppression in the lives of people of color has been crucial
in helping many counselors and counseling psychologists to
identify effective interventions to address such issues and to
work more broadly to effect social change (Hage, 2003; Vera
& Speight, 2003). Such awareness and actions have paralleled
the emergence of the multicultural competence movement
(Arredondo & Perez, 2003; Sue et al., 1982).
Multicultural competence generally is defined as the extent
to which counselors possess appropriate levels of self-aware-
ness, knowledge, and skills in working with individuals from
diverse cultural backgrounds (Arredondo et al., 1996; Sue,
Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992). In particular, self-aware-
ness entails being cognizant of one’s attitudes, beliefs, and
values regarding race, ethnicity, and culture, along with
one’s awareness of the sociopolitical relevance of cultural
group membership in terms of issues of cultural privilege,
discrimination, and oppression. The knowledge dimension
of multicultural competence refers to information one has
about various worldview orientations, histories of oppression
endured by marginalized populations, and culture-specific
values that influence the subjective and collective experi-
ences of marginalized populations. The skills component of
multicultural competence involves the ability to draw from an
existing fund of cultural knowledge to design mental health
interventions that are relevant to marginalized populations.
In many respects, multicultural competence has become
inextricably linked to counselors’ and counseling psycholo-
gists’ ability to commit to and actualize an agenda of social
justice (Kiselica & Robinson, 2001).
Social justice reflects a fundamental valuing of fairness
and equity in resources, rights, and treatment for marginal-
ized individuals and groups of people who do not share equal
power in society because of their immigration, racial, ethnic,
age, socioeconomic, religious heritage, physical ability, or
sexual orientation status groups (Fondacaro & Weinberg,
2002; Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997). In order to address
social justice issues, some counselors and counseling psy-
chologists in the United States have adopted a professional
commitment to ensuring global or international social chanJournal of Counseling & Development ■ April 2014 ■ Volume 92 131
Professionalism, Ethics, and
Value-Based Conflicts in Counseling
© 2014 by the American Counseling Association. All rights reserved.
The primary purpose of a code of ethics, for any profession, is
to establish norms and expectations for practitioners in order
to collectively minimize the risk of harm to clients and the
general public (Welfel, 2010). In a broader sense, a code of
ethics is also a reflection of the profession’s collective values
and moral principles. Indeed, the establishment of a code of
ethics, which communicates a normative orientation to the
service of others and a commitment to protect the welfare
of clients, is considered the “hallmark of professionalism”
(Gorman & Sandefur, 2011, p. 279). Promulgation of a code
of ethics places the needs and interests of clients over and
above the personal needs or values of any individual member
of the profession (DeMitchell, Hebert, & Phan, 2013; Gor-
man & Sandefur, 2011). A code of ethics helps to ensure
the primacy of client welfare by articulating a profession’s
collective set of values and communicating standards of prac-
tice for all members of that profession. Because laws set the
minimum standards of acceptable behavior, ethical standards
often exceed the legal requirements articulated in federal and
state laws (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011). Entry into and
continued association with a profession requires all of its
practitioners to make a commitment that they will abide by
the profession’s code of ethics and the profession’s collective
values as reflected in that code.
By all measures, counseling is a profession (Gorman
& Sandefur, 2011). Counseling is a vocation that requires
individuals to obtain specific, university-based training to
acquire expertise in a specialized set of knowledge and
skills; confers status and power upon its members; has an
Perry C. Francis and Suzanne M. Dugger, Department of Leadership and Counseling, Eastern Michigan University. Correspon-
dence concerning this article should be addressed to Perry C. Francis, Department of Leadership and Counseling, Eastern Michigan
University, 135 Porter Building, Ypsilanti, MI 48197 (e-mail: [email protected]).
Professionalism, Ethics, and
Value-Based Conflicts in Counseling:
An Introduction to the Special Section
Perry C. Francis and Suzanne M. Dugger, Guest Editors
This introduction to this special section of the Journal of Counseling & Development explores the importance of a code
of ethics to the establishment and maintenance of a profession. Recognizing a code of ethics as a communication of
a profession’s collective values and expectations, the editors of this special section acknowledge the dilemmas that
arise when a counselor’s personal values do not align with the profession’s collective values. The authors of each
article address value-base
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